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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Grain refinement of AA5754 aluminum alloy by ultrasonic cavitation: Experimental study and numerical simulation

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This article was retracted on 11 March 2016


In this work, an experimental investigation was carried out on the grain refinement of molten AA5754 Aluminum alloy through ultrasonic treatment. The cavitation induced heterogeneous nucleation was suggested as the major mechanism for grain refinement in the AA5754 aluminum alloy. A numerical simulation was performed to predict the formation, growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles in the molten AA5754 Aluminum alloy. Moreover, the acoustic pressure distribution and the induced acoustic streaming by ultrasonic horn reactor were investigated. It is suggested that the streaming by ultrasonic could transport the small bubbles formed in the ultrasonic cavitation zone into the bulk of melt rapidly. These micro-bubbles are collapsed due to acoustic vibrations where the resulting micro-jets are strong enough to break the oxide layer and to wet the impurities. These exogenous particles, intermetallics and oxides could contribute to the formation of fine, uniform and equiaxed microstructure across the treated melt. The experimental results confirmed the simulation predictions.

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Correspondence to R. Haghayeghi.

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This article has been retracted at the request of the editorial board of Metals and Materials International. The article was examined following the COPE guidelines with regard to suspected plagiarism in a published manuscript. The article contains figures reproduced from a previously published article with no acknowledgement of the source. Fig. 3 has been published previously in: An investigation on physical and chemical refinement of aerospace aluminium alloys R. Haghayeghi, P. Kapranos Mater. Lett. 95 (2013) 121-124 The microstructures in Fig. 3 are reproduced from Fig. 3 (a), (b), (c), while being assigned to different alloys and conditions. The corresponding author R. Haghayeghi submitted the article without the consent of the two co-authors E. Ezzatneshan and H. Bahai. The co-authors also indicate that they did not have knowledge on the previously published data contributed by R. Haghayeghi.

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Haghayeghi, R., Ezzatneshan, E. & Bahai, H. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Grain refinement of AA5754 aluminum alloy by ultrasonic cavitation: Experimental study and numerical simulation. Met. Mater. Int. 21, 109–117 (2015).

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