Evolving Systems

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 239–248 | Cite as

Multi-objective optimal operation in a micro-grid considering economic and environmental goals

  • Gholamreza AghajaniEmail author
  • Naser Yousefi
Original Paper


The optimal operation of micro-grids has attracted the attention of many developed societies considering different objectives, such as the operational cost, pollution rate, and the increasingly extensive use of renewable energy resources in this field. The aggregation of these mostly contradictory goals in an optimization problem can provide an appropriate response for the users of these systems. In this study, in order to manage energy in systems with various micro-grids that differ in quality, we aim to apply the multi-objective particle swarm optimization method to obtain the optimal distribution of energy resources in a sample micro-grid, while simultaneously satisfying economic and pollution related operational objectives.


Micro-grid Multi-objective optimization Multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm Optimal energy management Renewable energy 



The numbers of the energy generation units


The numbers of the storage units


The total number of load levels present in the grid


The status of the ith unit at time t


The amounts of output power for the ith unit at time t


The amounts of output power for the jth storage unit at time t


The energy price offer for the ith unit at time t


The energy price offer for the jth storage unit at time t


The startup or shut-down costs for the ith unit at time t


The startup or shut-down costs for the jth storage unit at time t


The amounts of power exchanged at time t


The offered market at time t


The amounts of pollution attributable to the ith generation unit at time t


The amounts of pollution attributable to the jth storage unit at time t


The amounts of pollution attributable to the market at time t


The charging amounts of a storage unit at the current times


The charging amounts of a storage unit at the previous times


The charging (discharging) amount during the tth hour


The maximum charging (discharging)rate


Distribution generation


Shuffle Forge leaping algorithm


Mixed integer nonlinear programming


Optimal power flow


Particle swarm optimization


Multi-objective particle swarm optimization


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Young Researchs and Elite Club, Ardabil BranchIslamic Azad UniversityArdabilIran

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