Statistical Guideline #3: Designate and Justify Covariates A Priori, and Report Results With and Without Covariates

  • Suzanne C. SegerstromEmail author
Integrative Review


From the Editors: This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal was to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively, the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal’s official Instructions for Authors and also to serve as an independent resource. If you have ideas for a future topic, please email the Statistical Editor, Suzanne Segerstrom at


Statistical guidelines Covariates Statistical control Statistical adjustment 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that she has no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author, and so there was no requirement for informed consent.


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Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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