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Do graphic and textual interactive content organizers have the same impact on hypertext processing and learning outcome?

Abstract

Learning with hypertexts require learners to navigate in a non-linear environment and build a coherent representation of the informational content. The expansion of digital technologies and hypertext use in higher education has emphasized the need to examine how technological tools may foster quality learning. This study examined how three types of interactive content organizers (COs) used to represent the main concepts and to navigate in the content pages can impact information processing and learning outcome. The COs designed for the experiment varied in terms of conceptual and navigation support they provide and format. Ninety-three undergraduates used a list of concepts that only provided conceptual support, a summary or a concept map that provided both conceptual and navigation support either with text or graphic format. Results showed that highly coherent COs such as summaries or concept maps improved navigation coherence. However, the summary focused the attention of learners and decreased hypertext exploration (i.e. longer time on the CO and fewer content pages accessed). Longer reading times of the summary also increased text-based outcome, whereas longer processing of the concept map improved inference-based outcome. Implications for the design of interactive COs used to access, navigate and a learn with hypertexts are discussed.

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Appendices

Appendix 1: Translation of the summary

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, incurable disease in which environmental factors and genetic predispositions lead to an increase in blood sugar levels. The increase of blood sugar levels causes disturbances in the pancreas. When the pancreas malfunctions, this results in a disturbance in the action of the insulin, which in turn causes a disturbance in the action of the liver. The liver can no longer fulfill its role properly, which worsens the increase in blood sugar levels. This mechanism then reinforces all of the disturbances involved in type 2 diabetes. Excessive fluctuations in blood sugar levels cause symptoms that can have serious consequences for individuals. However, there are adapted treatments that can help regulate blood sugar levels.

Appendix 2 : translation of the concept map

figure a

Generally the prognosis of BFH is good, and it can be managed with totally resection. Because of local recurrence is rare, even with involved margins, Choice of treatment for BFH is the surgical excision of the tumor, without any specific role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy [3, 10].

Appendix 3 : text-based questions used to assess learning outcome

1/8 What are the main factors that cause diabetes?

2/8 When a person suffers from diabetes, which hormone is not secreted sufficiently produced?

3/8 Which organ produces the hormones necessary to regulate blood sugar?

4/8 In what ways does the insulin help regulate blood sugar?

5/8 At which time of day is blood sugar the highest?

6/8 What are the main symptoms of diabetes?

7/8 How does glucagon raise blood glucose level?

8/8 With diabetes, why is the pancreas at risk of burning out?

Appendix 4 : inference-based questions used to assess learning outcome

1/8What impact does obesity have on the pancreas?

2/8 How can sport limit the risk of diabetes?

3/8 What should be done when a person with diabetes has a hypoglycemic attack?

4/8 Who controls blood glucose levels?

5/8 Why does the pancreas secrete different amounts of insulin at different times of the day?

time of day?

6/8 Why is it important for people with type 2 diabetes to monitor their blood sugar levels?

7/8 Why does a person treated for diabetes may experience

hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

8/8 With diabetes, why is the pancreas at risk of burning out?

8/8 What happens if a person suffering from diabetes exercises too much after taking insulin?

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Sanchiz, M., Amadieu, F., Lemarié, J. et al. Do graphic and textual interactive content organizers have the same impact on hypertext processing and learning outcome?. J Comput High Educ (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-022-09328-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-022-09328-z

Keywords

  • Hypertext learning
  • Navigation
  • Content organizers
  • Information processing
  • Information technologies
  • Concept maps