Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Vertical versus shared e-leadership approach in online project-based learning: a comparison of self-regulated learning skills, motivation and group collaboration processes

  • 22 Accesses

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of vertical and shared e-leadership approaches on self-regulated learning skills, motivation and group collaboration processes (group cohesion, group atmosphere, and group transactive memory system) in online project-based learning. The study was carried out according to a factorial experimental design (2 × 2) and mixed methods approach was used. The study was conducted on 41 teacher candidates randomly assigned to vertical and shared e-leadership groups. As a data collection tool; Self-Regulated Learning Scale, Motivation Scale, Transactive Memory Scale, Group Atmosphere Scale, Group Cohesion Scale, and a semi-structured interview form were used. Research findings indicate that there is no statistically significant difference between vertical and shared e-leadership groups in terms of self-regulated learning skills, motivation and group collaboration processes. In other words, both leadership approaches were found to be useful in the management of groups in online project-based learning. The qualitative findings of the research reveal that there are some advantages and disadvantages in both approaches. In this context, the shared e-leadership approach is determined to be useful especially in terms of fostering the sense of belonging to the group by sharing the leadership role within the group, ensuring a fair distribution of responsibility and workload among the group members. The vertical e-leadership approach was found to be useful in providing communication, cooperation and coordination among the group members thanks to the group leader, ensuring the planned progress of the group works.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Al-Ani, B., Horspool, A., & Bligh, M. C. (2011). Collaborating with ‘virtual strangers’: Towards developing a framework for leadership in distributed teams. Leadership,7(3), 219–249.

  2. Alsancak, D. (2010). The investigation of the relationship between transactive memory with group cohesion, group atmosphere and performance in computer supported collaboration learning environments (Doctoral Dissertation, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey).

  3. Alsancak, D., & Altun, A. (2011). The relationship between transactive memory and group cohesion, group atmosphere and performance in computer supported collaboration learning environments. Journal of Educational Technology Theory and Practice,1(2), 1–16.

  4. Anderson, N. R., & West, M. A. (1998). Measuring climate for work group innovation: Development and validation of the team climate inventory. Journal of Organizational Behavior,19, 235–258.

  5. Avolio, B. J., & Kahai, S. S. (2003). Adding the “e” to e-leadership: How it may impact your leadership. Organizational Dynamics,31(4), 325–338.

  6. Azevedo, R., & Hadwin, A. F. (2005). Scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition: Implications for the design of computer-based scaffolds. Instructional Science,33(5–6), 367–379.

  7. Bush, T. (2003). Theories of educational leadership and management (3rd ed.). London: Sage.

  8. Buyukozturk, S., Akgun, O. E., Ozkahveci, O., & Demirel, F. (2004). The validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice,4(2), 231e237.

  9. Care, E. (2018). Twenty-first century skills: From theory to action. In E. Care, P. Griffin, & M. Wilson (Eds.), Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills: Research and applications. Cham: Springer.

  10. Care, E., Griffin, P., & Wilson, M. (2018). Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills: Research and applications. Cham: Springer.

  11. Cascio, W. F., & Shurygailo, S. (2003). E-leadership and virtual teams. Organizational Dynamics,31(4), 362–376.

  12. Chamakiotis, P., & Panteli, N. (2011). e-Leadership styles for global virtual teams. In P. Yoong (Ed.), Leadership in the digital enterprise: issues and challenges (pp. 143–162). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

  13. Chang, W. L., & Lee, C. Y. (2013). Virtual team e-leadership: The effects of leadership style and conflict management mode on the online learning performance of students in a business-planning course. British Journal of Educational Technology,44(6), 986–999.

  14. Chen, C. C., Wu, J., Yang, S. C., & Tsou, H. Y. (2008). Importance of diversified leadership roles in improving team effectiveness in a virtual collaboration learning environment. Journal of Educational Technology & Society,11(1), 304–321.

  15. Choi, J. N., Price, R. H., & Vinokur, A. D. (2003). Self-efficacy changes in groups: Effects of diversity, leadership and group climate. Journal of Organizational Behavior,24, 1–16.

  16. Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

  17. Dubrin, A. J. (2004). Leadership (4th ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin.

  18. Eisenberg, J., Gibbs, J. L., & Erhardt, N. (2016). The role of vertical and shared leadership in virtual team collaboration. In Strategic management and leadership for systems development in virtual spaces (pp. 22–42). IGI Global.

  19. Ensley, M. D., Hmieleski, K. M., & Pearce, C. L. (2006). The importance of vertical and shared leadership within new venture top management teams: Implications for the performance of startups. The Leadership Quarterly,17(3), 217–231.

  20. Fairchild, A. J., Jeanne-Horst, S., Finney, S. J., & Barron, K. E. (2005). Evaluating existing and new validity evidence for the academic motivation scale. Contemporary Educational Psychology,30(3), 331–358.

  21. Fiedler, F. E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  22. Gallego-Arrufat, M. J., Gutiérrez-Santiuste, E., & Campaña-Jiménez, R. L. (2015). Online distributed leadership: A content analysis of interaction and teacher reflections on computer-supported learning. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 24(1), 81–99.

  23. Gijlers, H., Weinberger, A., van Dijk, A. M., Bollen, L., & van Joolingen, W. (2013). Collaborative drawing on a shared digital canvas in elementary science education: The effects of script and task awareness support. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning,8(4), 427–453.

  24. Gressick, J., & Derry, S. J. (2010). Distributed leadership in online groups. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning,5(2), 211–236.

  25. Gronn, P., & Hamilton, A. (2004). A bit more life in the leadership: Co-principalship as distributed leadership practice. Leadership and Policy in Schools,3(1), 3–35.

  26. Hambley, L. A., O’Neill, T. A., & Kline, T. J. (2007). Virtual team leadership: The effects of leadership style and communication medium on team interaction styles and outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,103(1), 1–20.

  27. Harris, A. (2008). Distributed school leadership: Developing tomorrow’s leaders. London, New York: Routledge.

  28. Harris, A., Jones, M., & Baba, S. (2013). Distributed leadership and digital collaborative learning: A synergistic relationship? British Journal of Educational Technology,44(6), 926–939.

  29. Haslaman, T. (2011). Effect of an online learning environment on teachers’ and students’ self-regulated learning skills (Doctoral dissertation, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey).

  30. Huberman, M., & Miles, M. B. (2002). The qualitative researcher’s companion. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

  31. Hung, C. M., Hwang, G. J., & Huang, I. (2012). A project-based digital storytelling approach for improving students' learning motivation, problem-solving competence and learning achievement. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 368–379.

  32. Jameson, J., Ferrell, G., Kelly, J., Walker, S., & Ryan, M. (2006). Building trust and shared knowledge in communities of e-learning practice: collaborative leadership in the JISC eLISA and CAMEL lifelong learning projects. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(6), 949–967.

  33. Jansen, R. S., Van Leeuwen, A., Janssen, J., Kester, L., & Kalz, M. (2017). Validation of the self-regulated online learning questionnaire. Journal of Computing in Higher Education,29(1), 6–27.

  34. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2004). Cooperation and the use of technology. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 785–811). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  35. Johnson, S. D., Suriya, C., Yoon, S. W., Berrett, J. V., & La Fleur, J. (2002). Team development and group processes of virtual learning teams. Computers & Education,39(4), 379–393.

  36. Jones, N., & O'shea, J. (2004). Challenging hierarchies: The impact of e-learning. Higher Education, 48(3), 379–395.

  37. Kabatas, S., & Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G. (2018). Evaluation of teachers’ lifelong learning attitudes in terms of self-efficacy towards the standards of educational technology. Bartin University Journal of Faculty of Education,7(2), 588–608.

  38. Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G. (2016). The relationship between metacognitive awareness and online information searching strategies. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction,6(4), 447–468.

  39. Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G., & Yilmaz, R. (2019). Impact of pedagogic agent-mediated metacognitive support towards increasing task and group awareness in CSCL. Computers & Education,134, 1–14.

  40. Keller, J. M. (1979). Motivation and instructional design: A theoretical perspective. Journal of Instructional Development,2(4), 26–34.

  41. Keller, J. M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: an overview of their current status. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates Inc.

  42. Kimmerle, J., & Cress, U. (2008). Group awareness and self-presentation in computer-supported information exchange. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning,3(1), 85–97.

  43. Knight, M. B., Pearson, J. M., & Hunsinger, D. S. (2008). The role of media richness in information technology-supported communication in group cohesion, agreeability, and performance. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC),20(4), 23–44.

  44. Koeslag-Kreunen, M. G., Van der Klink, M. R., Van den Bossche, P., & Gijselaers, W. H. (2018). Leadership for team learning: the case of university teacher teams. Higher Education,75(2), 191–207.

  45. Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P. A., Jochems, W., & Buuren, H. V. (2004). Measuring perceived quality of social space in distributed learning groups. Computers in Human Behavior,20, 607–632.

  46. Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2005). Group leadership in online collaborative Learning. In C. Howard, J. Boettcher, L. Justice, K. Schenk, G. Berg, & P. Rogers (Eds.), Encyclopedia of distance learning (vol 2) (pp. 975–983). Hershey: Information Science Publishing, Idea Group Inc.

  47. Land, S. M. (2004). The design and evaluation of a CSCL tool to support reflection and revision of design projects. Journal of Computing in Higher Education,16(1), 68–92.

  48. Lee-Kelley, L., & Sankey, T. (2008). Global virtual teams for value creation and project success: A case study. International Journal of Project Management,26(1), 51–62.

  49. Leeuwen, R. (2013). The effect of vertical versus shared leadership on team success. The leadership game. Retrieved June 23, 2018 from https://www.slideshare.net/RicovLeeuwen/leadership-presentation-acn.

  50. Lewis, K. (2003). Measuring transactive memory systems in the field: scale development and validation. Journal of Applied Psychology,88(4), 587–604.

  51. Lin, C., Standing, C., & Liu, Y. C. (2008). A model to develop effective virtual teams. Decision Support Systems,45(4), 1031–1045.

  52. Lin, J. W., & Tsai, C. W. (2016). The impact of an online project-based learning environment with group awareness support on students with different self-regulation levels: An extended-period experiment. Computers & Education,99, 28–38.

  53. Miller, M., & Hadwin, A. (2015). Scripting and awareness tools for regulating collaborative learning: Changing the landscape of support in CSCL. Computers in Human Behaviour,52, 573e588.

  54. Mohamadi, Z. (2018). Comparative effect of project-based learning and electronic project-based learning on the development and sustained development of english idiom knowledge. Journal of Computing in Higher Education,30(2), 363–385.

  55. Noguera, I., Guerrero-Roldán, A. E., & Masó, R. (2018). Collaborative agile learning in online environments: Strategies for improving team regulation and project management. Computers & Education,116, 110–129.

  56. Noroozi, O., Biemans, H. J., Weinberger, A., Mulder, M., & Chizari, M. (2013a). Scripting for construction of a transactive memory system in multidisciplinary CSCL environments. Learning and Instruction,25, 1–12.

  57. Noroozi, O., Teasley, S. D., Biemans, H. J., Weinberger, A., & Mulder, M. (2013b). Facilitating learning in multidisciplinary groups with transactive CSCL scripts. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning,8(2), 189–223.

  58. Noroozi, O., Weinberger, A., Biemans, H. J., Mulder, M., & Chizari, M. (2012). Argumentation-based computer supported collaborative learning (ABCSCL): A synthesis of 15 years of research. Educational Research Review,7(2), 79–106.

  59. Oren, A., Mioduser, D., & Nachmia, R. (2002). The development of social climate in virtual learning discussion groups. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning,3(1), 1–19.

  60. Pearce, C. L. (2004). The future of leadership: Combining vertical and shared leadership to transform knowledge work. The Academy of Management Executive,18(1), 47–57.

  61. Pearce, C. L., & Sims, H. P., Jr. (2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams: An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice,6(2), 172.

  62. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 451–502). San Diego: Academic Press.

  63. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & Mckeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.

  64. Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1986). Handbook of organizational measurement. Marshfield, MA: Pitman Publishing.

  65. Purvanova, R. K., & Bono, J. E. (2009). Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams. The Leadership Quarterly,20(3), 343–357.

  66. Raghavan, K., Cohen-Regev, S., & Strobel, S. A. (2001). Student outcomes in a local systemic change project. School Science and Mathematics,101(8), 417–426.

  67. Salter, N. P., & Conneely, M. R. (2015). Structured and unstructured discussion forums as tools for student engagement. Computers in Human Behavior, 46, 18–25.

  68. Schreiber, M., & Engelmann, T. (2010). Knowledge and information awareness for initiating transactive memory system processes of computer-supported collaborating ad hoc groups. Computers in Human Behavior,26(6), 1701–1709.

  69. Spillane, J. (2006). Distributed leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  70. Spillane, J. P., & Harris, A. (2008). Distributed leadership through the looking glass. Management in Educational,22(1), 31–34.

  71. Thornton, K. (2010). The nature of distributed leadership and its development in online environments. In P. Yoong (Ed.), Leadership in the digital enterprise: issues and challenges (pp. 143–162). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

  72. Timmerman, C. E., & Scott, C. R. (2006). Virtually working: Communicative and structural predictors of media use and key outcomes in virtual work teams. Communication Monographs,73(1), 108–136.

  73. Tseng, H., & Yeh, H. (2013). Team members’ perceptions of on-line teamwork learning experiences and building teamwork trust: A qualitative study. Computers & Education,63, 1–9.

  74. Walvoord, A. A., Redden, E. R., Elliott, L. R., & Coovert, M. D. (2008). Empowering followers in virtual teams: Guiding principles from theory and practice. Computers in Human Behavior,24(5), 1884–1906.

  75. Wassenaar, C., Pearce, C., Hoch, J., & Wegge, J. (2010). Shared leadership meets virtual teams: A match made in cyberspace. In P. Yoong (Ed.), Leadership in the digital enterprise: issues and challenges (pp. 143–162). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

  76. Weinberger, A. (2011). Principles of transactive computer-supported collaboration scripts. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy,6(03), 189–202.

  77. World Economic Forum (2016). What are the 21st-century skills every student needs?. Retrieved June 23, 2018 from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/03/21st-century-skills-future-jobs-students/.

  78. Xiong, Y., So, H. J., & Toh, Y. (2015). Assessing learners’ perceived readiness for computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL): A study on initial development and validation. Journal of Computing in Higher Education,27(3), 215–239.

  79. Yilmaz, R., & Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G. (2018). Assigned roles as a structuring tool in online discussion groups: comparison of transactional distance and knowledge sharing behaviors. Journal of Educational Computing Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633118786855.

  80. Yilmaz, R., & Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G., & Keser, H. (2018). The effect of shared e-leadership approach on students’ motivation, self-regulation skills and group collaboration processes in online project based learning [Çevrimiçi proje tabanli öğrenmede paylaşilan e-liderlik yaklaşiminin öğrencilerin motivasyonuna, öz-düzenleme becerilerine ve grup işbirliği süreçlerine etkisi]. In 7th International Conference on Education (IC-ED-2018), BAU International Berlin University of Applied Sciences Berlin – Germany 28 – 30 June 2018.

  81. Yilmaz, R., Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G., & Kilic Cakmak, E. (2017). The impact of transactive memory system and interaction platform in collaborative knowledge construction on social presence and self-regulation. Interactive Learning Environments,25(8), 949–969.

  82. Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist.,25, 3–17.

  83. Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice,41(2), 64–70.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The preliminary version of this study was presented at 7th International Conference on Education (IC-ED-2018), BAU International Berlin University of Applied Sciences, Berlin, Germany, 28–30 June 2018.

Funding

The authors declare that they have no funding of this study.

Author information

Correspondence to Ramazan Yilmaz.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yilmaz, R., Karaoglan Yilmaz, F.G. & Keser, H. Vertical versus shared e-leadership approach in online project-based learning: a comparison of self-regulated learning skills, motivation and group collaboration processes. J Comput High Educ (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-020-09250-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Online project-based learning
  • Vertical and shared e-leadership
  • Self-regulated learning skills
  • Motivation
  • Group collaboration processes