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How does self-regulated learning relate to active procrastination and other learning behaviors?

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This research investigates the relationship between self-regulated learning awareness, procrastination, and learning behaviors in a blended learning environment. Participants included 179 first-grade university students attending a blended learning-style class that used a learning management system. Data were collected using questionnaires on participants’ self-regulated learning awareness, academic behavior awareness for procrastination, and a datalog on the timeliness of their report submissions to quantify learning behaviors. Participants answered both pre- and post-class questionnaires. As regards learning behaviors, report and 1-min paper submission time values were collected using the learning management system. The results revealed that internal value, self-regulation, and procrastination are fundamental elements that enhance the awareness of time management for planned learning. Positive time management awareness promotes the submission of the 1-min paper report within the deadline and of the regular report early.

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This study is funded by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (Grant Number: 15H02935).

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Correspondence to Masanori Yamada.


Appendix 1: Motivational strategies for learning questionnaire (Pintrich and DeGroot 1990)




Compared with other students in this class, I expect to do well

I’m certain I can understand the ideas taught in this course

I expect to do very well in this class

Compared with others in this class, I think I’m a good student

I am sure I can do an excellent job on the problems and tasks assigned for this class

I think I will receive a good grade in this class

My study skills are excellent compared with other students in this class

Compared with other students in this class, I think I know a great deal about the subject

I know that I will be able to learn the material for this class

Intrinsic value

I prefer coursework that is challenging so I can learn new things

It is important for me to learn what is being taught in this class

I like what I am learning in this class

I think I will be able to use what I learn in this class in other classes

I often choose paper topics I will learn something from even if they require more work

Even when I do poorly on a test, I try to learn from my mistakes

I think that what I am learning in this class is useful for me to know

I think that what we are learning in this class is interesting

Understanding this subject is important to me

Test anxiety

I am so nervous during a test that I cannot remember facts I have learned

I have an uneasy, upset feeling when I take a test

I worry a great deal about tests

When I take a test, I think about how poorly I am doing

Cognitive strategy use

When I study for a test, I try to put together the information from class and from the textbooks

When I do my homework, I try to remember what the teacher said in class so I can answer the questions correctly

It is hard for me to decide what the main ideas are in what I read (R)

When I study, I put important ideas into my own words

I always try to understand what the teacher is saying even if it doesn’t make sense

When I study for a test, I try to remember as many facts as I can

When studying, I copy my notes to help me remember the material

When I study for a test, I practice saying the important facts over and over to myself

I use what I have learned from old homework assignments and the textbook to complete new assignments

When I am studying a topic, I try to make everything fit together

When I read materials for this class, I say the words over and over to myself to help me remember

I outline the chapters in my book to help me study

When reading, I try to connect the things I am reading about with what I already know


I ask myself questions to make sure I know the material I have been studying

When work is hard, I either give up or study only the easy parts (R)

I work on practice exercises and answer end-of-chapter questions even when I don’t have to

Even when the study materials are dull and uninteresting, I keep working until I finish

Before I begin studying, I think about the things I will need to do to learn

I often find that I have been reading for class but don’t know what it is all about (R)

I find that when the teacher is talking, I think of other things and don’t really listen to what is being said (R)

When I’m reading, I stop once in a while and go over what I have read

I work hard to get a good grade even when I don’t like a class

Appendix 2: 2 × 2 measure of the time-related academic behavior scale (Strunk et al. 2013)




I more effectively utilize my time by postponing tasks

I delay completing tasks to increase the quality of my work

I put off starting tasks to increase my motivation

I feel a stronger state of flow in my tasks when working closer to a deadline

I intentionally wait until closer to the deadline to begin work to enhance my performance

I delay tasks because I perform better when under more time pressure

I rarely have difficulty completing quality work when I start a task close to the deadline


I put off tasks for later because they are too difficult to complete

I avoid starting and completing tasks

I often delay starting tasks because I am afraid of failure

I delay starting tasks because they are overwhelming

Timely engagement-approach

I work further ahead of the deadline at a shower pace, because it helps me perform better

I believe I can successfully complete most tasks because I start work immediately after being assigned a task

I do my best work well ahead of the deadline

I start working right away on a new task so that I can perform better on the task

I complete my tasks prior to their deadline to help me be successful

I begin working on difficult tasks early to achieve positive results

Time engagement-avoidance

I start my work early because my performance suffers when I have to rush through a task

I do not start things at the last minute because I find it difficult to complete them on time

I begin working on a newly assigned task right away to avoid failing behind

When I receive a new assignment, I try to complete it ahead of the deadline to avoid feeling overwhelmed

On extremely difficult tasks, I begin work even earlier so I can avoid the consequences of putting it off for later

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Yamada, M., Goda, Y., Matsuda, T. et al. How does self-regulated learning relate to active procrastination and other learning behaviors?. J Comput High Educ 28, 326–343 (2016).

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