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A new symbiotic relationship between a polyclad flatworm and a mantis shrimp: description of a new species of Emprosthopharynx (Polycladida: Acotylea) associated with Lysiosquilla maculata (Crustacea: Stomatopoda)

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Abstract

We describe a new species of polyclad, Emprosthopharynx lysiosquillae sp. nov., based on specimens collected from the body surface of the mantis shrimp Lysiosquilla maculata (Fabricius, 1793) captured in Kujuzaki, Urasoe, Okinawa Island, Japan. This is the first report of symbiotic polyclads collected from stomatopods. The polyclads were collected from large-sized L. maculata individuals (more than ca. 300 mm in total length); 1–35 polyclads were observed per mantis shrimp. Emprosthopharynx lysiosquillae sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by possessing (i) submarginal eyespots that are not arranged on the median line, (ii) a bell-shaped pharynx, and (iii) a posterodorsally curved penis stylet, and by lacking (iv) a common sperm duct. We provide partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for E. lysiosquillae sp. nov. From phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated sequences of 16S, 18S, and 28S ribosomal DNA and COI, we demonstrate that Emprosthopharynx represented by our new species forms a relatively robust clade with Hoploplana Laidlaw, 1902. We discuss (i) the superfamily- and family-level affiliations of Emprosthopharynx, (ii) the possibility of host preference in E. lysiosquillae sp. nov., and (iii) the functions of a putative adhesive organ and grooves on the pharynx found in the present polyclads.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Ryutaro Goto (Kyoto University) for providing us with the opportunity to conduct this collaborative research and Mr. Natsu Karashima (University of the Ryukyus) for his assistance in collecting mantis shrimps; two anonymous reviewers for providing us constructive comments. YO is thankful to Ms. Aoi Tsuyuki (Hokkaido University) for her advice about adhesive organs in cotylean polyclads and Dr. Keiichi Kakui (Hokkaido University) for direction toward literature about commensal organisms in ghost shrimps. The authors would like to thank Enago (www.enago.jp) for the English language review.

Funding

This study was funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) under KAKENHI grant number KAKENHI grant number 20J11958 to YO.

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Correspondence to Yuki Oya.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

Sampling and field studies

All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors.

Data availability

Type slides (one holotype and three paratypes) have been deposited in Ryukyu University Museum, Fujukan (RUMF), University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan, and other slides have been deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Hokkaido University Museum (ICHUM), Sapporo, Japan. All sequences determined in this study have been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases.

Author contribution

YO and HN designed this study. YO observed polyclad specimens and wrote the manuscript. HN did field studies and identified specimens of mantis shrimps. HK improved the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Additional information

Communicated by M. Curini-Galletti

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Supplementary Information

Figure S1.

Maximum likelihood tree based on single gene sequences. a Phylogeny of 16S rDNA (428 bp). b Phylogeny of 18S (1735 bp). c Phylogeny of 28S (981 bp). d Phylogeny of COI (516 bp) (PNG 766 kb)

High Resolution Image (EPS 2252 kb)

Table S1

List of species included in the molecular phylogenetic analysis and their respective GenBank accession numbers (XLSX 14 kb)

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Oya, Y., Nakajima, H. & Kajihara, H. A new symbiotic relationship between a polyclad flatworm and a mantis shrimp: description of a new species of Emprosthopharynx (Polycladida: Acotylea) associated with Lysiosquilla maculata (Crustacea: Stomatopoda). Mar. Biodivers. 52, 46 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-022-01288-y

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