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Etmopterus brosei sp. nov.: a new lanternshark (Squaliformes: Etmopteridae) from the southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian oceans, with a revised key to the Etmopterus lucifer clade

Abstract

A new species of lanternshark, Etmopterus brosei sp. nov. (Squaliformes: Etmopteridae), is described from the southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian oceans. The new species resembles other members of the Etmopterus lucifer Jordan & Snyder, 1902 clade in having linear rows of dermal denticles, and most closely resembles the conspecific E. sculptus Ebert, Compagno, & De Vries, 2011 from the southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian oceans. The new species is fairly common along the upper continental slopes off South Africa, Mozambique, and seamounts along the Madagascar Ridge, including Walters Shoal, in 480–1200 m depth. It can be distinguished from other members of the E. lucifer clade by a combination of characteristics, including the arrangement of flank and caudal markings, shape and size of flank marking, the arrangement of dermal denticles along the body, and the presence of dermal denticles on the dorsal fin bases. A revised key to the Etmopterus lucifer clade is provided.

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Acknowledgments

The following individuals are sincerely thanked for their assistance and support: Angus Paterson, Alan Whitfield, Paul Cowley, Roger Bills, Nkoshinathia Mazungula, Mzwandile Dwani, Vuyani Hanisi, and the fish collection staff (South African Institute of Aquatic Biodiversity), Dave Catania and Jon Fong (California Academy Sciences), Albé Bosman (Iziko–South African Museum), Gavin Naylor (University of Florida, Shark Research Program), Rachel Aitchison and Paul Clerkin (Pacific Shark Research Center, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories), and Marsha Englebrecht for facilities, logistical, photo- and radiography support. Furthermore, SW is very grateful to Ralf Thiel (ZMH) for granting access to specimens and radiography facilities at ZMH, Irina Eidus (ZMH) for her help with the radiography and collection database, and Matthias F.W. Stehmann (ICHTHYS), who collected four paratypes and comparative specimens from cruise 17 of R/V Vityaz and kindly provided station details, fresh total length measurements and a photograph of one of the paratypes taken directly after catching. Finally, thanks to the two anonymous reviewers whose comments helped to improve the manuscript.

Support for this project was provided to DAE through the South African Shark and Ray Protection Project, implemented by the WILDTRUST, funded by the Shark Conservation Fund and the South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity. The California Academy of Sciences and the Pacific Shark Research Center, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories provided support for this project, and National Science Foundation grant (Jaws and Backbone: Chondrichthyan Phylogeny and a Spine for the Vertebrate Tree of Life, DEB 1132229) to Gavin Naylor, University of Florida, Shark Research Program.

Funding

This project was supported in part by the South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity and South African Shark and Ray Protection Project, implemented by the WILDTRUST, funded by the Shark Conservation Fund.

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Correspondence to David A. Ebert.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for animal testing, animal care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

Sampling and field studies

All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the acknowledgements, if applicable. The study is compliant with CBD and Nagoya protocols.

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All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.

Author contribution

DAE and RWL conceived and designed the research; DAE, RWL, and SW conducted examinations; DAE and RWL wrote the initial version of the manuscript; and DAE, RWL, and SW revised and approved the manuscript.

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Communicated by W. White

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This article is a contribution to the Topical Collection Systematics and Biodiversity of Indian Ocean Sharks, Rays, and Chimaeras (Chondrichthyes)

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Ebert, D.A., Leslie, R.W. & Weigmann, S. Etmopterus brosei sp. nov.: a new lanternshark (Squaliformes: Etmopteridae) from the southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian oceans, with a revised key to the Etmopterus lucifer clade. Mar. Biodivers. 51, 53 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-021-01173-0

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Keywords

  • Chondrichthyes
  • Elasmobranch
  • South Africa
  • Madagascar Ridge
  • New species