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Pseudopolydora (Annelida: Spionidae) from European and adjacent waters with a key to identification and description of a new species

Abstract

Four Pseudopolydora Czerniavsky, 1881 species from European and adjacent waters are distinguished and a key to their identification is provided. Pseudopolydora antennata (Claparède, 1868) is redescribed based on material from the type locality, Gulf of Naples, Italy. Pseudopolydora pulchra (Carazzi, 1893) (type locality in the Gulf of Naples) is also redescribed based on material from Italy. Most previous records of the Asian P. paucibranchiata (Okuda, 1937) from North European waters are herein referred to a new species, P. nordica sp. nov. The latter differs from P. paucibranchiata by the absence of an occipital antenna on the prostomium and yellow ramified chromatophores on palps. Native to the Northwest Pacific, P. paucibranchiata was first recorded in European waters from the Tyrrhenian Sea, Lazio, Italy, in 1978. Since then, the species has spread widely in the Mediterranean and in 2015 was first recorded from northern Europe in the Netherlands.

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Acknowledgments

My sincere thanks to Maria Cristina Gambi, Adriana Giangrande, Marco Sigovini, Céline Houbin, Ida Dahl Hansen, and Torsten Struck for help in the field and studies in Italy, France, and Norway, respectively; UK Environment Agency, Vermilion Energy Inc., Natural England, and Thomson Unicomarine Ltd. for providing specimens of Pseudopolydora; and Galina N. Buzhinskaja, Vyacheslav V. Potin, Dieter Fiege, Emma Sherlock, Susan Chambers, Torkild Bakken, and Natalya Budaeva for help with museum collections. Some of the specimens examined during this study were collected during surveys of the UK governmental agencies: the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Environmental Agency (EA), Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA), Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA), and Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI). Additional specimens were provided from Turkey by Ertan Dağli; from Netherlands by Marco Faasse; from Croatia by Barbara Mikac; from Ireland by Edward McCormack; from Norway by Andrei Sikorski, Elena I. Gerasimova, and Arne Nygren; from Germany by Gustavo Sene Silva; from Russia by Elena A. Frolova; and from Portugal by Ascensão Ravara. Maria Cristina Gambi provided important literature about the history of the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn and suggested the type localities for P. antennata and P. pulchra, both originally described from Naples. Tim M. Worsfold (APEM Ltd.), Ruth Barnich (Thomson Unicomarine Ltd.), Samantha Lines & Thomas Scott-Heagerty (Gardline Marine Sciences Ltd.) provided data about some samples and permission to use them in this study. Photos of P. paucibranchiata from Netherlands were provided by Marco Faasse; from Victoria, Australia, by Robin S. Wilson; and of P. pulchra from Norway by Katrine Kongshavn. Victor Surugiu and Adriana Giangrande provided some missing literature. James T. Carlton edited and provided important comments on the final version of the manuscript. To all these colleagues, I express my sincere gratitude. I also thank two anonymous reviewers for their important comments and suggestions which improved the manuscript.

Funding

Financial support was provided by the BEQUALM/NMBAQC Scheme, and the Norwegian Research Council (Project 233635/H30 “Environmental management of petroleum activities in the Barents Sea: Norwegian-Russian collaboration”). The author’s research visit to the University Museum of Bergen was supported by the Cooperation Programme between Norway and Russia “Multidisciplinary EDUcation and reSearch in mArine biology in Norway and Russia” (MEDUSA) funded by the Norwegian Agency for International Cooperation and Quality Enhancement in Higher Education (DIKU).

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Radashevsky, V.I. Pseudopolydora (Annelida: Spionidae) from European and adjacent waters with a key to identification and description of a new species. Mar. Biodivers. 51, 31 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-020-01156-7

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Keywords

  • Polychaete
  • Morphology
  • Systematics
  • Introduced species
  • Mediterranean