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To the light side: molecular diversity and morphology of stomatopod larvae and juveniles (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Stomatopoda) from crustose coralline algal reefs in Taiwan

Abstract

Biology of planktonic stomatopod larvae has long remained poorly understood and often considered “black boxes” in life history studies. From coralline crustose algal (CCA) reefs at Datan, Taoyuan, Taiwan, using light traps recently designed, we collected considerable number of stomatopod larvae and juveniles. Applying DNA barcoding techniques using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequences, 14 morphotypes were revealed to represent 12 distinct species, seven of which identified to species level by comparing against reference sequences available from online source (GenBank), whereas the other five do not cluster with any known sequences. All stomatopod larvae and juveniles were described and illustrated. We report Manningia pilaensis (De Man, 1888) and Levisquilla jurichi (Makarov, 1979) as new records of the stomatopod fauna of Taiwan and confirm the validity of Lysiosquillina maculata (Fabricius, 1793). Based on material we acquired from light traps, which include propelagic antizoea larvae (of L. maculata), and also postlarval and juvenile forms (of various squillid species), both positively phototactic, indicating the current understanding of negative-positive-negative phototactic tendency from early planktonic to postlarval stages through the development of stomatopod larvae, might not be as distinct as previously described.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge a grant for CCA reef research from Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan. Thanks also to Hee-Seung Hwang (Seoul National University, Korea) for the initial discussion on stomatopod taxonomy, Noah Last (Third Draft Editing) for his English language editing, and Dr. Shane Ahyong (Australian Museum, Sydney) and one anonymous reviewer for providing much helpful comments to improve the quality of the article. We also thank the Taiwan Power Company for offering temporary entrance permits in accessing the Datan algal reefs. Thanks to Chu yu-wei, Juvenile Art Center, for providing the aerial photograph of Datan algal reef.

Funding

This study was funded by research grant from Academia Sinica to BKKC.

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Correspondence to Benny K. K. Chan.

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This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Sampling and field studies

All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the “Acknowledgments” section, if applicable.

Data availability statement

Authors deposited sequences of the specimens in NCBI GenBank (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/).

Author contribution statement

BKKC and RJM designed the study. PCT, BKKC, RJM, WPH, and HRL conducted field samplings and laboratory sorting. WPH conducted the SEM observations. YFT and HRL conducted molecular analysis. KW prepared line drawings. KW, BKKC, and YFT wrote the MS.

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Wong, K.J.H., Tsao, YF., Tsai, PC. et al. To the light side: molecular diversity and morphology of stomatopod larvae and juveniles (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Stomatopoda) from crustose coralline algal reefs in Taiwan. Mar. Biodivers. 51, 20 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-020-01150-z

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Keywords

  • Mantis shrimp larvae
  • Datan algal reef
  • Light trap
  • DNA barcoding
  • COI
  • 16S rRNA
  • New record