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Crinoid diversity and their symbiotic communities at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia)

Abstract

Members of the order Comatulida (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) are widely distributed on Indo-Pacific reefs, where they host a highly diverse and understudied cryptofauna, which makes them a potential source of hidden biodiversity. In this study, shallow-water crinoid populations and their symbiotic communities from the Bangka Archipelago (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) were investigated. Presence and diversity of the symbionts, focusing on their host selectivity patterns, were assessed. A total of 39 comatulid species belonging to six families were found. Overall, symbiont fauna included 70 species belonging to 11 families within eight orders. The results showed variable host specificity among symbionts’ families, and patterns correlated with host size for some symbiont taxa. This study provides the first baseline dataset of crinoid assemblages and their symbiont diversity in the understudied region of North Sulawesi, within the Coral Triangle.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Marco Segre Reinach (Coral Eye Research Outpost, Bangka Island) for providing the facilities and logistic support. Special thanks go to Greta Zampa (University of Bologna), Marco Perin and all the Coral Eye staff for their kind help during fieldwork. We are also grateful to the Sam Ratulangi University officers that helped us in obtaining the Research Permit for Foreign Researchers (ID: 1522943273), issued by the Indonesia Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (Kementerian Riset Teknologi Dan Pendidikan Tinggi, Republik Indonesia, RISTEKDIKTI). Special thanks to Dr. Mindi M. Summers (University of Calgary) and Dr. Daniel Rittschof (Duke University) for sharing their research knowledge on the topic and to Fabio Galbiati for providing the stunning pictures. The authors would also like to thank the three anonymous reviewers for their generous and valuable comments that improved the manuscript. The Coral Eye Research Outpost provided facilities and wet lab materials during the field work.

Funding

The Coral Eye Research Outpost provided facilities and wet lab materials during the field work. No other funding has been used for this work.

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Correspondence to Riccardo Virgili.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for animal testing, animal care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

Sampling and field studies

All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the Acknowledgements. The study is compliant with CBD and Nagoya protocols. No samples have been transported outside the country as stated by the research permit policy.

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The data obtained under the following study are available from the corresponding author on request.

Author contribution

RV and CC designed the project. RV conducted sampling and identified the specimens. RV and MP analysed the data. RV, MP and JR wrote the manuscript. All the authors contributed in reviewing and approving the paper.

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Virgili, R., Cerrano, C., Ponti, M. et al. Crinoid diversity and their symbiotic communities at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia). Mar. Biodivers. 50, 90 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-020-01097-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-020-01097-1

Keywords

  • Comatulida
  • Feather star
  • Symbiont
  • Cryptofauna
  • Biodiversity
  • Echinodermata
  • Palaemonidae