Skip to main content
Log in

A species complex within the red-reticulate Goniobranchus Pease, 1866 (Nudibranchia: Doridina: Chromodorididae)

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Marine Biodiversity Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The taxonomy and diversity of chromodorid nudibranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) are relatively well-studied, although molecular analyses have only been applied to test few species-level groups. Within Chomodorididae, the genus Goniobranchus Pease, 1866 contains many different groups based on external colouration, including the red-reticulate group. Previously, most of the red-reticulate group has been considered as either a single variable species, identified as either Goniobranchus reticulatus Pease, 1866 or Goniobranchus tinctorius (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828), or as a species complex. In this study, red-reticulate nudibranchs were collected from different locations spanning the Indo-Pacific. From these specimens, DNA data were derived, consisting of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) sequences. COI data were analysed using a distance-based species delimitation approach (ABGD), and the combined dataset (COI+16S rDNA) was analysed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. The analyses identified five species-level clades, but none of the clades’ morphotypes matched exactly with the original descriptions of G. tinctorius or G. reticulatus. The non-reticulate, spotted species Goniobranchus splendidus (Angas, 1864) falls inside this complex. The existence of multiple species-level clades in the Goniobranchus red-reticulate group suggests this is a group of closely related species, comprising at least five undescribed taxa.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others

References

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank the following people who assisted with collection of specimens: Karen Cheney (UQ), Gary Cobb and their colleagues, under the General Fisheries Permit – Fisheries Act 1994 (183990) (Sunshine Coast, Australia), Kara Layton (WAM), Greg Rouse (SIO), and all Molecular Invertebrate Systematics and Ecology Laboratory (MISE) members at the University of the Ryukyus (UR), particularly Hiroki Kise, Iori Kawamura, Taku Ohara, Yuki Endo and Yuka Kushida. We are grateful to Dr. Masami Obuchi and Ryosuke Uozumi (UR) for help in specimen collection. The Western Australian Museum Malacology department (Lisa Kirkendale, Corey Whisson) is warmly thanked for access to specimens collected under an exemption from the Fish Resource Management Act (1994) and Regulation 17, under the Wildlife Conservation Act (1950). We also acknowledge the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) for permits issued to Operation Wallacea in 2002. Drs. Euichi Hirose (UR) and Taha Soliman (OIST) are thanked for assistance and guidance on the use of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Drs. Tohru Naruse (UR) and Bastian Reijnen (Naturalis Biodiversity Center) are thanked for providing ex situ and in situ photographs of some specimens. The first author was supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education and Science (MEXT) and the JGC-S Foundation via a graduate scholarship at UR. Three anonymous reviewers’ comments improved an earlier version of this manuscript.

Funding

This study was partly funded by the WA Museum’s grant from the Gorgon Project’s Barrow Island Net Conservation Benefits Fund awarded to NGW.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Giun Yee Soong.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

Sampling and field studies

All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the acknowledgements.

Data availability

The datasets generated and analysed during the current study are available in GenBank and in this published article (and its supplementary information files).

Author contribution

GYS conducted experiments, analyzed data and wrote the manuscript with input from JDR and NGW. NGW provided some Australian specimens and data. JDR collected some specimens from Japan, supervised the research and provided research materials. All authors read, edit and approved the manuscript.

Additional information

Communicated by K. Kocot

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Fig. S1

Molecular phylogeny based on single gene dataset (COI) inferred by Maximum Likelihood (ML). Numbers on nodes represent Bayesian posterior probabilities (>0.95) / ML bootstrap values (only >50% values are shown) (PDF 225 kb)

Fig. S2

Molecular phylogeny based on single gene dataset (16S rDNA) inferred by Maximum Likelihood (ML). Numbers on nodes represent Bayesian posterior probabilities (>0.95) / ML bootstrap values (only >50% values are shown) (PDF 222 kb)

Fig. S3

Additional images of live specimens for Goniobranchus sp. 1, G. sp. 2 and G. sp.5 (PDF 19288 kb)

Fig. S4

Molecular phylogeny based on single gene dataset (COI) inferred by Maximum Likelihood (ML). Alignment retained at full length sequences, not trimmed. Numbers on nodes represent Bayesian posterior probabilities (>0.95) / ML bootstrap values (only >50% values are shown). (PDF 78 kb)

ESM 1

(DOCX 102 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Soong, G.Y., Wilson, N.G. & Reimer, J.D. A species complex within the red-reticulate Goniobranchus Pease, 1866 (Nudibranchia: Doridina: Chromodorididae). Mar. Biodivers. 50, 25 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-020-01048-w

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-020-01048-w

Keywords

Navigation