Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 2193–2195 | Cite as

“Rhizarian rider”―symbiosis between Phronimopsis spinifera Claus, 1879 (Amphipoda) and Aulosphaera sp. (Phaeodaria)

  • Yasuhide NakamuraEmail author
  • Ryo Minemizu
  • Nobuhiro Saito



We thank Ms. A. Kayama and Mr. Y. Mazda for allowing us to use their pictures. Appreciations are also due to Ms. and Mr. Sasagawa (Sea Again), Dr. D. Lindsay (JAMSTEC), Dr. N. Suzuki (Tohoku Univ.), Dr. K. Wakabayashi (Hiroshima Univ.), and Dr. A. Tuji (NMNS) for providing useful information.

Funding information

This study was funded by the JSPS KAKENHI (JP17J03204) and Mikimoto Fund for Marine Ecology (2016–2017).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

Sampling and field studies

All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the acknowledgements, if applicable.

Data availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its supplementary information files.

Supplementary material

12526_2019_1002_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (149 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 148 kb)
12526_2019_1002_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (330 kb)
ESM 2 (PDF 329 kb)
12526_2019_1002_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (16 kb)
ESM 3 (XLSX 16 kb)
12526_2019_1002_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
ESM 4 (XLSX 12 kb)


  1. Swanberg NR, Bennet P, Lindsey JL, Anderson OR (1986) The biology of a coelodendrid: a mesopelagic phaeodarian radiolarian. Deep-Sea Res 33:15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Wakabayashi K, Tanaka Y (2012) The jellyfish-rider: phyllosoma larvae of spiny and slipper lobsters associated with jellyfish. Taxa 33:5–12 (in Japanese with English abstractGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyNational Museum of Nature and ScienceTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Ryo Minemizu Photo OfficeShimizuJapan
  3. 3.Suido-sha Co. Ltd.KawasakiJapan

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