Population genetic structure of Thryssa kammalensis in the Chinese Seas inferred from control region sequences
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Thryssa kammalensis (Bleeker, 1849) is a common pelagic species in the Chinese Seas and plays an important role in marine ecosystems. In the present study, 196 individuals of T. kammalensis were collected from nine localities along the Chinese coastal waters. The partial control region sequences of them were sequenced for analysis. Variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) were common in the control regions of all individuals, which led to variation in sequence length, ranging from 772 to 924 bp. All the populations exhibited high haplotype diversity (0.946–1.000) and low nucleotide diversity (0.015–0.031). Two distinct lineages were identified based on the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, Bayesian inference (BI) trees, and minimum spanning tree (MST). However, the relative frequency of individuals occupying the two major lineages did not differ significantly among sampling locations. In addition, both molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) and pairwise FST analysis strongly supported little genetic differentiation among populations, revealing no significant genetic structure for T. kammalensis. Neutrality tests and analysis of mismatch distribution suggested that recent population expansion occurred in the two lineages. The climatic changes during Pleistocene periods and dispersal strategy leading to the continual gene flow might have played an important role in the geographical pattern of T. kammalensis.
KeywordsGenetic diversity Phylogenetic relationships Population differentiation Demographic history
This work was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Number: 2018YFC1406302), the National Programme on Global Change and Air-Sea Interaction (Grant Number: GASI-02-SCS-YSWspr/aut), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number: 41776171).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethical approval was not required for this study due to no endangered animals involved. All handling of T. kammalensis specimens was conducted in strict accordance with Animal Care Quality Assurance in China.
Sampling and field studies
All sampling and experimental protocols were conducted under the permits approved by Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources.
The datasets (sequences) generated during the current study have been deposited in GenBank with the accession numbers MH890693-MH890808.
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