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Deep-sea glass sponges (Hexactinellida) from polymetallic nodule fields in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ), northeastern Pacific: Part II—Hexasterophora

Abstract

The Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) in the northeastern Pacific is a potential area for deep-sea mining, comprises the worldwide largest polymetallic nodule fields and is one of the most difficult to sample and thus unknown ecosystems. Glass sponges (Hexactnellida) represent a main group of benthic deep-sea megafauna, especially hexasterophorid sponges, but only few studies have been published so far. This is the first study focusing on the taxonomy of hexasterophorid sponges from polymetallic nodule fields in the CCFZ and includes descriptions of eight known and six new species: Hyalostylus microfloricomus sp. nov.; Hyalostylus schulzei sp. nov.; Docosaccus nidulus sp. nov.; Holascus spinosus sp. nov.; Caulophacus (Caulophacus) wilsoni sp. nov.; and Chonelasma bispinula sp. nov.

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Acknowledgements

The EcoResponse cruise with RV Sonne was financed by the German Ministry of Education and Science (BMBF) as a contribution to the European project JPI-Oceans “Ecological Aspects of Deep-Sea Mining.” The authors acknowledge funding from BMBF under contract 03F0707E. Furthermore, we want to thank Prof. Dr. Jens Greinert and M.Sc. Florian Gausepohl (GEOMAR—Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel) for support with station maps.

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Correspondence to Daniel Kersken.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

Sampling and field studies

All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the acknowledgements, if applicable.

Additional information

Communicated by S. Gollner

This article is registered in ZooBank under urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EBA162C9-22B1-43ED-A114-02AC76E08951

Hyalostylus microfloricomus sp. nov. is registered in ZooBank under urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:3A5D6226-43DB-4DE3-94CA-EC7BD087BD50

Hyalostylus schulzei sp. nov. is registered in ZooBank under urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:2CADEE3B-57CB-41CE-B0DA-B1BD85D060BC

Docosaccus nidulus sp. nov. is registered in ZooBank under urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D60AEA51-8737-42BF-8678-F8D329EC4507

Holascus spinosus sp. nov. is registered in ZooBank under urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:AE3D3B1B-B3C2-47E9-BB89-0362FF8F1127

Chonelasma bispinula sp. nov. is registered in ZooBank udner urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:3DBCFF4F-AF0E-48A3-9EF8-57E04E7A9399

Caulophacus (Caulophacus) wilsoni sp. nov. is registered in ZooBank under urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:A37746F8-6A0A-4622-B4FE-36F71ED4EA3A

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Kersken, D., Janussen, D. & Arbizu, P.M. Deep-sea glass sponges (Hexactinellida) from polymetallic nodule fields in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ), northeastern Pacific: Part II—Hexasterophora. Mar Biodiv 49, 947–987 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-018-0880-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-018-0880-y

Keywords

  • Deep-sea sponges
  • Deep-sea mining
  • Manganese nodules
  • Caulophacus
  • Saccocalyx