Advertisement

Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 751–761 | Cite as

Exploring the anatomy of Cossura pygodactylata Jones, 1956 (Annelida, Cossuridae) using micro-computed tomography, with special emphasis on gut architecture

  • Julio Parapar
  • A. Zhadan
  • A. Tzetlin
  • E. Vortsepneva
  • J. Moreira
Biodiversity of Icelandic Waters
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biodiversity of Icelandic Waters

Abstract

The anatomy of Cossura pygodactylata Jones, 1956 (Annelida; Cossuridae) is presented, based on the study of specimens collected during the BIOICE project in Icelandic waters and additional material from the White Sea. General gross external and internal anatomy were investigated by means of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compared with results obtained with light microscopy histological sectioning (LMHS). Micro-CT revealed a highly regionalised gut, posterior to the pharyngeal cavity and oesophagus, divided in an anterior stomach and a posterior intestine with different morphologies. The stomach is in the thoracic region, dorsally positioned and divided in a short and narrow anterior part and a longer posterior one, with an increasing diameter towards its posterior end. Both stomach regions bear a dorsal infolding of tissue, along its inner wall, that resembles to the typhlosole of the Clitellata. The heart is dorsally located and contains a heart body above the hind stomach. The intestine is wider than the stomach, without dorsal infolding inside the lumen and filling most part of the internal body cavity. A transitional cup-shaped gut element connecting the stomach and the intestine could be observed at the level of the last thoracic segment. In general, the resolution of micro-CT images reflects reasonably well the main elements of gross external and internal anatomy of cossurids, and that of gut architecture in particular.

Keywords

NE Atlantic Ocean Micro-CT BIOICE Digestive system Polychaeta 3D anatomical reconstruction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Gudmundur Gudmundsson, Director of Collections and Systematics Department (Icelandic Institute of Natural History, Reykjavik), Gudmundur Vidir Helgason (Institute of Biology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik) and the Director of the Sandgerdi Marine Centre until 2013 for their help and advice during JP visits to the SMC, and to Solrun Bragadóttir and the rest of the women of the SMC involved in sorting the specimens from the BIOICE samples. The authors are also grateful to María Candás and Xela Cunha-Veira (EBMG, USC) for their help with the micro-CT images. The authors would also like to thank Nathalie Yonow (Swansea, Wales, UK) for linguistic correction of the manuscript, two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments that greatly contributed to improve the organisation and clarity of the information provided and Karin Meiβner, Guest Editor of Marine Biodiversity, for her support during the review process and generous effort to improve the presentation of the text.

Funding

This work was partially supported by several grants from the European Union’s Training and Mobility of Researchers program and the Universidade da Coruña to the first author to visit the Sandgerdi Marine Centre. The micro-CT study was financially supported by the project Fauna Ibérica XI - Polychaeta VI (CGL2014-53332-C5-3-P). The work of AZ, AT and EV was supported by grants 15-29-02447 and 16-04-00343 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The histological investigations were supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation, grant 14-50-00029.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

Field study

All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the acknowledgements, if applicable.

References

  1. Alba-Tercedor J, Sánchez-Tocino L (2011) The use of the SkyScan 1172 high-resolution micro-CT to elucidate if the spicules of the sea slugs (Mollusca: Nudibranchia, Opisthobranchia) have a structural or a defensive function. SkyScan Users Meeting 2011:113–121Google Scholar
  2. Day JH (1963) The Polychaete fauna of South Africa. Part 8: new species and records from grab samples and dredgings. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist, Ser Zool 10(7):383–445Google Scholar
  3. Dinley J, Hawkins L, Paterson G, Ball AD, Sinclair I, Sinnett-Jones P, Lanham S (2010) Micro-computed X-ray tomography: a new non-destructive method of assessing sectional, fly-through and 3D imaging of a soft-bodied marine worm. J Microsc 238:123–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Faulwetter S, Dailianis T, Vasileiadou A, Arvanitidis C (2013a) Contrast enhancing techniques for the application of micro-CT in marine biodiversity studies. Microsc Anal 27:4–7Google Scholar
  5. Faulwetter S, Vasileiadou A, Kouratoras M, Dailianis T, Arvanitidis C (2013b) Micro-computed tomography: introducing new dimensions to taxonomy. ZooKeys 263:1–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fournier JA, Petersen ME (1991) Cossura longocirrata: redescription and distribution, with notes on reproductive biology and a comparison of described species of Cossura (Polychaeta: Cossuridae). Ophelia Suppl 5:63–80Google Scholar
  7. Grube AE (1878) Annulata Semperiana. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Annelidenfauna der Philippinen. Mem Acad Imp Sci St Petersb, Ser 7 25(8):1–300Google Scholar
  8. Jones ML (1956) Cossura pygodactylata, a new annelid from San Francisco Bay (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae). J Wash Acad Sci 46:127–130Google Scholar
  9. Marchán DF, Novo M, Fernández R, De Sosa I, Trigo D, Cosín DJD (2016) Evaluating evolutionary pressures and phylogenetic signal in earthworms: a case study–the number of typhlosole lamellae in Hormogastridae (Annelida, Oligochaeta). Zool J Linnean Soc 178(1):4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Michel C (1988) Intestine and digestive glands. In: Westheide W, Hermans CO (eds) The ultrastructure of Polychaeta. Microfauna Mar 4:157–176Google Scholar
  11. Parapar J (2003) Oweniidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Icelandic waters, collected by the BIOICE project, with a description of Myrioglobula islandica n. sp. Sarsia 88:274–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Parapar J, Candás M, Cunha-Veira X, Moreira J (2017a) Exploring annelid anatomy using micro-computed tomography: a taxonomic approach. Zool Anz 270:19–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Parapar J, Kongsrud JA, Kongshavn K, Alvestad T, Aneiros F, Moreira J (2017b) A new species of Ampharete (Annelida: Ampharetidae) from the NW Iberian Peninsula, with a synoptic table comparing NE Atlantic species of the genus. Zool J Linn Soc.  https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx077 Google Scholar
  14. Parapar J, Moreira J, Helgason GV (2011) Distribution and diversity of the Opheliidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the continental shelf and slope of Iceland, with a review of the genus Ophelina in northeast Atlantic waters and description of two new species. Org Div Evol 11:83–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Parapar J, Moreira J, Helgason GV (2013) First record of genus Orbiniella Day, 1954 (Polychaeta: Orbiniidae) in North Atlantic Ocean with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 4006:330–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Parapar J, Moreira J, Gil J, Martín D (2016) A new species of the genus Terebellides (Polychaeta, Trichobranchidae) from the Iranian coast. Zootaxa 4117:321–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Paterson GLJ, Sykes D, Faulwetter S, Merk R, Ahmed F, Hawkins LE, Dinley J, Ball AD, Arvanitidis C (2014) The pros and cons of using micro-computed tomography in gross and microanatomical assessments of polychaetous annelids. Mem Mus Vic 71:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rouse GW (2001) Cossuridae day, 1963. In: Rouse GW, Pleijel F (eds) Polychaetes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 46–48Google Scholar
  19. Rouse GW, Tzetlin AB (1997) Ultrastructure of the body wall and gametogenesis in Cossura cf. longocirrata (Cossuridae Polychaeta). Invert Reprod Develop 32:41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Saulnier-Michel C (1992) Chapter 2.3. Polychaeta: digestive system. In: Harrison FH, Gardiner SK (eds) Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates, vol. 7 Annelida, Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 53−69Google Scholar
  21. Sykes D, Hawkins L, Ahmedl F, Faulwetter S, Arvanitidis C, Paterson G (2013) 3D virtual histology of Polychaetes using micro-CT. Microsc Microanal 19:644–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tampi PRS (1958) Anatomy of Armandia leptocirris Grube (Polychaeta). J Zool Soc India 10:15–32Google Scholar
  23. Thulin G (1921) Biologisch-faunistiche Unterschungen aus dem Vresund. IV. Über Cossura longocirrata Webster & Benedict und über die Röhren von Disoma multisetosum Örsted. Lunds Univ Ersskr NF, Avd 2 17(10):2–15Google Scholar
  24. Tzetlin AB (1994) Fine morphology of the feeding apparatus of Cossura sp. (Polychaeta, Cossuridae) from the White Sea. Mém Mus Natl Hist Nat 162:137–143Google Scholar
  25. Webster HE, Benedict JE (1887) The Annelida Chaetopoda from Eastport, Maine. U.S. Commision of Fish and Fisheries. Rep US Fish Comm 1885:707–755Google Scholar
  26. Zhadan A (2015) Cossuridae (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sedentaria) from Australian and adjacent waters: the first faunistic survey. Rec Aust Mus 67:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhadan AE, Vortsepneva EV, Tzetlin AB (2012) Redescription and biology of Cossura pygodactylata Jones, 1956 (Polychaeta: Cossuridae) in the White Sea. Invertebr Zool 9:115–125Google Scholar
  28. Zhadan A, Vortsepneva E, Tzetlin A (2014) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the musculature of Cossura pygodactylata Jones, 1956 (Annelida: Cossuridae). Zool Anz 253:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhadan A, Vortsepneva E, Tzetlin A (2015) Ontogenetic development and functioning of the anterior end of Cossura pygodactylata Jones, 1956 (Annelida: Cossuridae). Zoomorphology 134:509–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de BioloxíaUniversidade da CoruñaA CoruñaSpain
  2. 2.N.A. Pertsov White Sea Biological Station, Biological FacultyM.V. Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Departamento de Biología (Zoología), Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations