Morphological and molecular divergence between Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål, 1775) and C. indicus Day, 1873 (Perciformes: Sparidae) and notes on a Red Sea endemic lineage of C. crenidens

Abstract

Additional data, resulting from examination of newly collected material from the Red Sea, east coast of Africa, Arabian Gulf, Pakistan, and western coast of India, and a phylogenetic analysis of the COI barcoding region, confirms Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål) and C. indicus Day as valid species. The latter species was earlier regarded as a subspecies of C. crenidens. In addition, the analyses herein show that specimens from the Red Sea form a distinct monophyletic sub-clade within C. crenidens, characterized by low genetic divergence from specimens from the southwestern Indian Ocean. Close comparison of 34 morphological characters showed that specimens from South Africa and Mozambique differ from Red Sea specimens only in having slightly longer pelvic fins [4.6–4.9 in standard length (SL) vs. 4.8–6.1 in SL]. Examination of additional specimens of both species provided more assessment of inter- and intraspecific variation in meristic and morphometric characters. A new set of characters that help to distinguish C. indicus from C. crenidens is proposed: the former species has a deeper body and caudal peduncle; more scales between fifth dorsal-fin spine and lateral line; scales on top of head extending forward to vertical through posterior margin of pupil; longer pelvic fins; lips with tiny cirri; caudal fin blackish distally; and usually with obvious black spot at pectoral-fin axil. Crenidens indicus was previously reported from central Oman, Arabian Gulf, to Pakistan; herein its presence from the western coast of India, Gujarat and Mumbai (= Bombay), is confirmed. Descriptions of C. crenidens and C. indicus based on material examined, photographs of alive and fresh fishes and an updated key to the three known species of Crenidens are provided.

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Acknowledgments

Susanne Dorow and Jennifer Steppler are gratefully thanked for technical assistance at SMF and thanks are also due to Matthias Juhas and Stephanie Simon (SMF) and Fumiya Tanaka (MUFS) for assisting in molecular analyses. Sven Tränkner (SMF) kindly provided close-up images of specimens and we further acknowledge the Grunelius-Möllgaard Laboratory at SMF for lab support. We kindly appreciate the support of Roger Bills, Bafo Konqobe and Mzwandile Dwani (all SAIAB) by providing loans of specimens and colleagues at SAIAB are also thanked for donating tissue subsamples for molecular analyses. Shirleen Smith (USNM) is thanked for inspection of some specimens. Kent Carpenter and Millicent Sanciangco (both Old Dominion University) are thanked for their support. We thank to Gulab D. Khedkar (Paul Hebert Centre for DNA Barcoding and Biodiversity Studies, Dr. B.A. Marathwada University, Aurangabad, India) for permission to use his photograph and genetic data of the specimen from Gujarat, India. The scientific research cooperation between King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Faculty of Marine Sciences (FMS), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and the Senckenberg Research Institute (SRI), Frankfurt, Germany, in the framework of the Red Sea Biodiversity Project, during which the present material was collected, was funded by KAU GRANT NO. “I/1/432-DSR”. The authors acknowledge, with thanks, KAU and SRI for technical and financial support as well as Ali Al-Aidaroos, Mohsen Al Sofiyani and Mohamed M. Gabr (KAU), Fareed Krupp (SRI and Qatar Natural History Museum, Doha) for their help in the realization of the present study, and also Pirzada Jamal Siddiqui (PMNH) for financial support and sampling facilities in Pakistan.

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Correspondence to Sergey V. Bogorodsky.

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Communicated by M. Sonnewald

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Appendix 1

Information on specimens and sequences used in the maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). (DOC 71 kb).

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Bogorodsky, S.V., Iwatsuki, Y., Amir, S.A. et al. Morphological and molecular divergence between Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål, 1775) and C. indicus Day, 1873 (Perciformes: Sparidae) and notes on a Red Sea endemic lineage of C. crenidens . Mar Biodiv 47, 1273–1285 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-017-0764-6

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Keywords

  • Sparidae
  • Crenidens
  • Seabreams
  • DNA barcoding
  • Phylogenetic analysis
  • Geographical distribution