A quantitative and statistical biological comparison of three semi-enclosed seas: the Red Sea, the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, and the Gulf of California

  • William B. Ludt
  • Link Morgan
  • James Bishop
  • Prosanta Chakrabarty
Original Paper

Abstract

Similar habitats separated by great distances can provide remarkable examples of convergent evolution in biological diversity, and have been influential in our understanding of community ecology, historical biogeography, and evolution. Here, we compare three semi-enclosed seas in arid regions of the northern hemisphere, the Red Sea, the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, and the Gulf of California, and test whether they show similar biodiversity patterns. Despite large geographic separations between the seas, the similar shapes and latitudinal locations lead to several analogous abiotic conditions. These similarities, however, do not result in equivalent biodiversity patterns, even when correcting for different regional species pools. Comparisons revealed that the Red Sea contains a greater species diversity of vertebrates, but that the Gulf of California contains the greatest species diversity of invertebrates. Notably, vertebrate abundance patterns were statistically similar between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of California. Divergences are likely due to variable habitats within each sea, several influential abiotic differences, and dissimilar histories among the seas. While these results support a null hypothesis of biological dissimilarity despite abiotic similarities, they are the first statistical comparisons of the biotas of these three regions. Continued statistical comparisons among marine ecosystems have the potential to reveal ecological and evolutionary patterns that typically go unnoted.

Keywords

Biodiversity Biogeography GBIF Rarefaction Species richness Climate change 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank all the museums that have uploaded their data to GBIF, for, without these data, this study would not have been possible. In addition, we thank W. Shaw, G. Soria, the University of Arizona, the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, J. Burt, and NYU Abu Dhabi for assistance and support during trips that inspired this research. We also thank, in no particular order: K. Harms, G. Bernardi, F. Alda, M.E. Hellberg, and J. Gutt for their helpful comments and discussions that aided this manuscript.

Supplementary material

12526_2017_740_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (43 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 43 kb)

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Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • William B. Ludt
    • 1
  • Link Morgan
    • 1
  • James Bishop
    • 2
  • Prosanta Chakrabarty
    • 1
  1. 1.Ichthyology Section, 119 Foster Hall, Museum of Natural Science, Department of Biological SciencesLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.Ecosystem-based Management of Marine Resources, Environment and Life Science Research CentreKuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchSafatKuwait

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