Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 327–355 | Cite as

New species of Semnoderidae (Kinorhyncha: Cyclorhagida: Kentrorhagata) from the Gulf of Mexico

  • Martin V. Sørensen
  • Stephen C. Landers
Original Paper


Two new species of Semnoderidae from the Gulf of Mexico are described, and the presence of Antygomonas cf. gwenae and a yet undescribed species of Antygomonas is reported. Sphenoderes aspidochelone nov. sp. is recognized by the presence of a first segment forming a closed ring with deep middorsal and midventral incisions, stout, middorsal acicular spines on segments 1 to 11, lateroventral acicular spines on segments 3 to 9, sexually dimorphic laterodorsal spines on segment 10 and minute cuspidate spines in lateroventral positions on segment 5. Semnoderes lusca nov. sp. is characterized by its first segment forming a closed ring with deep, wedge-shaped middorsal and midventral incisions, acicular middorsal spines on segments 1 to 9 and 11, acicular lateroventral spines on segments 2 to 9, crenulated middorsal and midlateral spines on segment 10 and well-developed cuspidate spines on segments 2 (more lateral than acicular spines), 5 (more ventral than acicular spines), 8 (lateral accessory positions) and 9 (ventrolateral positions). A discussion of the diagnostic characteristics of Antygomonas, Sphenoderes and Semnoderes is included. A comparison of these three genera with the specimens recorded in the present study indicates that Antygomonas should be considered as closely related with Sphenoderes and Semnoderes, but it also suggest that A. gwenae could represent a separate lineage within Semnoderidae, and that the species should be reassigned to a new genus.


Antygomonas Kinorhynchs Meiofauna Semnoderes Sphenoderes Taxonomy 



This research was made possible by a grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. Data are publically available through the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information & Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) at (doi:  10.7266/N74J0C32,  10.7266/N7SB43S2 and  10.7266/N7W66HTS). The authors thank the staff and students of Troy University for help with sediment collection and laboratory work. In addition, our thanks go to the researchers at the NMFS/NOAA Pascagoula lab for their help with sediment collection, to Dr. Steve Ramroop (TU) for providing Fig. 1, to Jon Norenburg, Kathryn Ahlfeld and Courtney Wickel, Smithsonian Institution, for arranging the loan of Antygomonas gwenae and Semnoderes pacificus type material, to Melissa Rohal, Harte Research Institute, Texas A&M University Corpus Christi, for donating her specimen of Sphenoderes aspidochelone from the southern GoM, and to Maria Herranz for providing information about the undescribed Spanish species of Antygomonas. The second author also thanks Troy University for funding through the faculty development committee.


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Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of DenmarkUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, 210A MSCXTroy UniversityTroyUSA

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