A review of the global diversity and natural history of stalked jellyfishes (Cnidaria, Staurozoa)

  • Lucília S. Miranda
  • Claudia E. Mills
  • Yayoi M. Hirano
  • Allen G. Collins
  • Antonio C. Marques

DOI: 10.1007/s12526-017-0721-4

Cite this article as:
Miranda, L.S., Mills, C.E., Hirano, Y.M. et al. Mar Biodiv (2017). doi:10.1007/s12526-017-0721-4


In this review, we present the current state of biodiversity knowledge for the class Staurozoa (Cnidaria), including richness estimates, geographical and bathymetric distributions, substrate use, feeding, behavior, life cycle, and conservation. Based on non-parametric, statistical incidence estimators, the global inventory of 50 known and accepted species of stalked jellyfishes might be regarded as close to complete, but we discuss possible bias related to the lower research effort applied in the Southern Hemisphere. Most of the species occur at mid-latitudes, presenting a distributional pattern that disagrees with the classic pattern of diversity (higher richness near the Equator). Specimens are frequently found on algae, but they have also been reported attached to rocks, seagrasses, shells, mud, sand, coral/gorgonian, sea cucumber, and serpulid tube. Most of the species are found in the intertidal and shallow subtidal regions, but species of Lucernaria have been reported at more than 3000 m deep. Amphipods and copepods are the prey items most frequently reported, and stauromedusae have been observed being actively preyed upon by nudibranch mollusks and pycnogonids. Apparently, stalked jellyfishes have a high sensitivity to anthropic impacts in the environment, and promotion of the class, one of the least studied among Cnidaria, is perhaps the best possible conservation strategy.


Stauromedusae Distribution Substrate Development Feeding Behavior 

Supplementary material

12526_2017_721_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (199 kb)
Online Resource 1(PDF 199 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (181 kb)
Online Resource 2(PDF 181 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (185 kb)
Online Resource 3(PDF 184 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (928 kb)
Online Resource 4(PDF 928 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (988 kb)
Online Resource 5(PDF 988 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (955 kb)
Online Resource 6(PDF 954 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM7_ESM.pdf (950 kb)
Online Resource 7(PDF 949 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM8_ESM.pdf (1000 kb)
Online Resource 8(PDF 999 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM9_ESM.pdf (945 kb)
Online Resource 9(PDF 945 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM10_ESM.pdf (983 kb)
Online Resource 10(PDF 983 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM11_ESM.pdf (945 kb)
Online Resource 11(PDF 945 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM12_ESM.pdf (953 kb)
Online Resource 12(PDF 953 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM13_ESM.pdf (982 kb)
Online Resource 13(PDF 982 kb)
12526_2017_721_MOESM14_ESM.pdf (948 kb)
Online Resource 14(PDF 948 kb)

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucília S. Miranda
    • 1
  • Claudia E. Mills
    • 2
  • Yayoi M. Hirano
    • 3
  • Allen G. Collins
    • 4
  • Antonio C. Marques
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Friday Harbor Laboratories and the Department of BiologyUniversity of WashingtonWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Coastal Branch of Natural History Museum and InstituteChibaJapan
  4. 4.National Systematics Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian InstitutionWashingtonUSA
  5. 5.Centro de Biologia MarinhaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations