Calcinea of the Red Sea: providing a DNA barcode inventory with description of four new species

  • Oliver Voigt
  • Dirk Erpenbeck
  • Rául A. González-Pech
  • Ali M. Al-Aidaroos
  • Michael L. Berumen
  • Gert Wörheide
Red Sea Biodiversity

Abstract

The Red Sea is a biodiversity hotspot with a considerable percentage of endemic species for many marine animals. Little is known about the diversity and distribution of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea) in this marginal sea. Here we analysed calcareous sponges of the subclass Calcinea that were collected between 2009 and 2013 at 20 localities in the Red Sea, ranging from the Gulf of Aqaba in the north to the Farasan Islands in the south, to document the species of this region. For this, we applied an integrative approach: We defined OTUs based on the analyses of a recently suggested standard DNA marker, the LSU C-region. The analysis was complemented with a second marker, the internal transcribed spacer, for selected specimens. Ten OTUs were identified. Specimens of each OTU were morphologically examined with spicule preparations and histological sections. Accordingly, our ten OTUs represent ten species, which cover taxonomically a broad range of the subclass. By combining molecular and morphological data, we describe four new species from the Red Sea: Soleneiscus hamatus sp. nov., Ernstia arabica sp. nov., Clathrina rotundata sp. nov., and Clathrina rowi sp. nov.. One additional small specimen was closely related to “Clathrina” adusta, but due to the small size it could not be properly analysed morphologically. By providing the DNA sequences for the morphologically documented specimens in the Sponge Barcoding Database (www.spongebarcoding.org) we facilitate future DNA-assisted species identification of Red Sea Calcinea, even for small or incomplete samples, which would be insufficient for morphological identification. Application of DNA barcode methods in the subclass will help to further investigate the distribution of Calcinea in the Red Sea and adjacent regions.

Keywords

Porifera Calcarea Red Sea DNA barcoding Taxonomy 

Supplementary material

12526_2017_671_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (14.6 mb)
ESM 1(PDF 14917 kb)
12526_2017_671_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (53 kb)
Supplementary Table 1Metadata of calcinean specimens (Collection ID, Sample Locality, GPS coordinates, GenBank accession numbers and Sponge Barcoding Database IDs; GenBank accession numbers of calcaronean outgroup taxa (XLSX 53.2 kb)
12526_2017_671_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (64 kb)
Supplementary Table 2Comparison of spicule sizes of Arthuria sueziana and Arthuria tenuipilosa (PDF 63.6 kb)

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Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Palaeontology and GeobiologyLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  2. 2.GeoBio-CenterLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of Marine Sciences, Marine Biology DepartmentKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  4. 4.Red Sea Research CenterKing Abdullah University of Science and TechnologyThuwalKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  5. 5.Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und GeologieMunichGermany

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