Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 249–258 | Cite as

A new species of the recently established genus Setaphyes (Kinorhyncha, Allomalorhagida) from the Mediterranean with an identification key

  • Nuria Sánchez
  • Álvaro García-Herrero
  • Guillermo García-Gómez
  • Fernando Pardos
Original Paper


A new species of the very recently erected kinorhynch genus Setaphyes is described here using scanning electron microscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy. Specimens of the new species were collected from the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Setaphyes cimarensis sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of unpaired paradorsal setae on segments 2–9, laterodorsal setae on segments 2–9 and ventromedial setae on segments 3–9, combined with the presence of a distinctive cuticular ornamentation at the anterior dorsal margin of segment 1 forming small, round depressions, as well as conspicuous longitudinal cuticular folds on both sides of segment 10. Moreover, the new species has a significantly larger total trunk length compared to its Mediterranean congeners. A key to all known species of Setaphyes is provided. The present contribution brings the total number of kinorhynch species around the Iberian Peninsula to 33.


Pycnophyidae Key Morphometry Meiofauna Iberian Peninsula Mediterranean Sea 



This contribution received financial support from the Research Projects CGL 2009–08928 and CGL 2013-42908-P (Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Government of Spain). The authors want to thank Dr. Alfonso Ángel Ramos Esplá and Andrés Izquierdo Muñoz, respectively director and manager of CIMAR Marine Station at Santa Pola (Alicante) for their enthusiastic help and logistic support during sampling campaigns. Special thanks are given to the referees for their constructive and valuable comments that greatly improved our manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Altenburger A, Rho SH, Chang CY, Sørensen MV (2015) Zelinkaderes yong sp. nov. from Korea - the first recording of Zelinkaderes (Kinorhyncha: Cyclorhagida) in Asia. Zool Stud 54:25. doi: 10.1186/s40555-014-0103-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Claparède E (1863) Beobachtungen über die Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte wirbelloser Thiere an der Küste der Normandie angestellt. Wilhelm Engelmann, LeibzigGoogle Scholar
  3. Dal Zotto M, Todaro MA (2016) Kinorhyncha from Italy, a revision of the current checklist and an account of the recent investigations. Zool Anz 265:90–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fontaneto D, Barbosa AM, Segers H, Pautasso M (2012) The ‘rotiferologist’ effect and other global correlates of species richness in monogonont rotifers. Ecography 35:174–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. GªOrdóñez D, Pardos F, Benito J (2008) Three new Echinoderes (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from north Spain, with new evolutionary aspects in the genus. Zool Anz 247:95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Higgins RP (1964) A method for meiobenthic invertebrate collection. Am Zool 4:291Google Scholar
  7. Higgins RP (1983) The Atlantic Barrier reef ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, II: Kinorhyncha. Smithson Contrib Mar Sci 18:1–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Higgins RP (1988) Kinorhyncha. In: Higgins RP, Thiel H (eds) Introduction to the Study of Meiofauna. Smithson Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp 328–331Google Scholar
  9. Lemburg C (2002) A new kinorhynch Pycnophyes australensis sp. n. (Kinorhyncha: Homalorhagida: Pycnophyidae) from Magnetic Island, Australia. Zool Anz 241:173–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Neuhaus B (2013) Kinorhyncha (=Echinodera). In: Schmidt-Rhaesa A (ed) Handbook of Zoology. Gastrotricha, Cycloneuralia and Gnathifera. Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera. De Gruyter, Berlin/, pp 181–348.Google Scholar
  11. Neves RC, Sørensen MV, Herranz M (2016) First account on kinorhynchs from Portugal, with the description of two new species: Echinoderes lusitanicus sp. nov. and E. reicherti sp. nov.. Mar Biol Res 12(5) doi:  10.1080/17451000.2016.1154973
  12. Pardos F, Higgins RP, Benito J (1998) Two new Echinoderes (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from Spain, including a reevaluation of kinorhynch taxonomic characters. Zool Anz 237:195–208Google Scholar
  13. Pardos F, Sánchez N, Herranz M (2016a) Two sides of a coin: the phylum Kinorhyncha in Panama. I) CaribbeanPanama. Zool Anz 265:3–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pardos F, Herranz M, Sánchez N (2016b) Two sides of a coin: the phylum Kinorhyncha in Panama. II) CaribbeanPanama. Zool Anz 265:26–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Reinhard W (1881) Über Echinoderes und Desmoscolex der Umgegend von Odessa. Zool Anz 4:588–592Google Scholar
  16. Sánchez N, Yamasaki H (2016) Two new Pycnophyidae species (Kinorhyncha: Allomalorhagida) from Japan lacking ventral tubes in males. Zool Anz 265:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sánchez N, Pardos F, Herranz M, Benito J (2011) Pycnophyes dolichurus sp. nov. and P. aulacodes sp. nov. (Kinorhyncha, Homalorhagida, Pycnophyidae), two new kinorhynchs from Spain with a reevaluation of homalorhagid taxonomic characters. Helgol Mar Res 65:319–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sánchez N, Herranz M, Benito J, Pardos F (2012) Kinorhyncha from the Iberian Peninsula: new data from the first intensive sampling campaigns. Zootaxa 3402:24–44Google Scholar
  19. Sánchez N, Rho HS, Min WG, Kim D, Sørensen MV (2013) Four new species of Pycnophyes (Kinorhyncha: Homalorhagida) from Korea and the East China Sea. Sci Mar 77:353–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sánchez N, Herranz M, Benito J, Pardos F (2014a) Pycnophyes almansae sp. nov. and Pycnophyes lageria sp. nov., two new homalorhagid kinorhynchs (Kinorhyncha, Homalorhagida) from the Iberian Peninsula, with special focus on introvert features. Mar Biol Res 10:17–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sánchez N, Pardos F, Sørensen MV (2014b) Deep-sea Kinorhyncha: two new species from the Guinea Basin, with evaluation of an unusual male feature. Org Divers Evol 14:349–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sánchez N, Yamasaki H, Pardos F, Sørensen MV, Martínez A (2016) Morphology disentangles the systematics of a ubiquitous but elusive meiofaunal group (Kinorhyncha: Pycnophyidae). Cladistics 32(5):479–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sørensen MV, Pardos F (2008) Kinorhynch systematics and biology – an introduction to the study of kinorhynchs, inclusive identification keys to the genera. Meiofauna Mar 16:21–73Google Scholar
  24. Sørensen MV, Pardos F, Herranz M, Rho HS (2010) New data on the genus Paracentrophyes (Homalorhagida, Kinorhyncha), with the description of a new species from the West Pacific. Open Zool J 3:42–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sørensen MV, Rho HS, Min WG, Kim D, Chang C (2013) Occurrence of the newly described kinorhynch genus Meristoderes (Cyclorhagida: Echinoderidae) in Korea, with the description of four new species. Helgol Mar Res 67:291–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sørensen MV, Dal Zotto M, Rho HS, Herranz M, Sánchez N, Pardos F, Yamasaki H (2015) Phylogeny of Kinorhyncha based on morphology and two molecular loci. PLoS ONE 10(7), e0133440. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133440 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Sørensen MV, Gąsiorowski L, Randsø PV, Sánchez N, Neves RC (2016) First report of kinorhynchs from Singapore, with the description of three new species. Raffles Bull Zool 64:3–27Google Scholar
  28. Zelinka K (1896) Demonstration von Tafeln der Echinoderes- Monographie. Verh Dtsch Zool Ges 6:197–199Google Scholar
  29. Zelinka K (1928) Monographie der Echinodera. Wilhelm Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nuria Sánchez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Álvaro García-Herrero
    • 1
  • Guillermo García-Gómez
    • 1
  • Fernando Pardos
    • 1
  1. 1.Dpto. Zoología y Antropología Física, Facultad de BiologíaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.IFREMER, Centre Brest, REM/EEP/LEP, Institut Carnot Ifremer-EDROMEPlouzanéFrance

Personalised recommendations