Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 1325–1335 | Cite as

Description of a new endoparasitic copepod genus and species (Lamippidae) that induces gall formation in leaves of the sea pen Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Octocorallia) from British Columbia

  • Jason D. WilliamsEmail author
  • Bianca Anchaluisa
  • Christopher B. Boyko
  • Neil McDaniel
Original Paper


A new genus and species of gall-forming endoparasitic copepod of the family Lamippidae is described from the orange sea pen Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Gray, 1860) collected in British Columbia, Canada. Lamippid copepods (over 50 species) are obligate endoparasites, some of which form galls in a variety of soft corals (Alcyonacea and Pennatulacea). Ptilosarcoma athyrmata n. gen., n. sp. is the first lamippid formally described from any species of Ptilosarcus Verrill, 1865. In total, 143 galls from six sea pens were dissected and found to typically contain one female and male copepod pair. Infested leaves of P. gurneyi had 1.4 ± 0.6 (n = 143) galls per leaf. Using light and scanning electron microscopy, the copepods were examined and found to most closely resemble those belonging to the genus Isidicola Gravier, 1914, based on the presence of maxillipeds and lack of acicules on the caudal rami; however, they are distinct from the sole species of Isidicola based on aspects of antennal morphology. We conclude that Lamippina laubieri Bouligand, 1960 is a synonym of L. aciculifera (Zulueta, 1908), thus the family presently contains 52 species and one subspecies. A key to lamippid genera and a table of all lamippid genera and species with all known hosts and locality records are provided.


Cnidaria Copepod Lamippid Northeast Pacific Parasite 



We thank Mary Knight (American Museum of Natural History) for help in proper formation of the specific name. We also thank Douglas Swanston for assistance in field collections. Geoff Boxshall (Natural History Museum, London) kindly advised on the authorship of Copepoda and Poecilostomatoida. Peter Wimberger (Slater Museum of Natural History, the University of Puget Sound) kindly searched for Johnstone’s (1969) specimens. This research was supported, in part, by a grant from the National Science Foundation (DBI-1337525; PI: Williams, Hofstra University).


  1. Batie RE (1971) Taxonomy and some aspects of the biology of the sea pen Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Cnidaria, Pennatulacea). Master of Science Thesis, Oregon State University.Google Scholar
  2. Batie RE (1972) Investigations concerning the taxonomic status of the sea pen Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Cnidaria, Pennatulacea). Northwest Sci 46(4):290–300Google Scholar
  3. Baillon S, Hamel JF, Wareham VE, Mercier A (2014) Seasonality in reproduction of the deep-water pennatulacean coral Anthoptilum grandiflorum. Mar Biol 161:29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Best BA (1988) Passive suspension feeding in a sea pen: effects of ambient flow on volume flow rate and filtering efficiency. Biol Bull 175:332–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birkeland C (1969) Consequences of differing reproductive and feeding strategies for the dynamics and structure of an association based on the single prey species, Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Gray). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  6. Birkeland C (1974) Interactions between a sea pen and seven of its predators. Ecol Monogr 44:211–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouligand Y (1960) Notes sur la famille des Lamippidae, première partie. Crustaceana 1:258–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouligand Y (1961) Notes sur la famille des Lamippidae, 2e partie. Crustaceana 2:40–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouligand Y (1965) Notes sur la famille des Lamippidae, 3e partie. Crustaceana 8:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouligand Y (1966) Recherches recentes sur les copepodes associes aux anthozoaires. Symp Zool Soc Lond 16:267–306Google Scholar
  11. Bouligand Y, Delamare-Deboutteville C (1959) Le dimorphisme sexuel de Linaresia mammillifera Zulueta 1908, copépode parasite de l’octocoralliaire Muricea chamaeleon von Koch. C R Séances Acad Sci 248:286–288Google Scholar
  12. Boxshall G (2015). Lamippidae Joliet, 1882. In: Walter TC, Boxshall G (2015) World of Copepods database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at Accessed 19 February 2016.Google Scholar
  13. Boxshall G, Halsey SH (2004) An introduction to copepod diversity. Ray Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Bruzelius R (1858) Om en i Pennatula rubra lefvande parasit. Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps Akad Förhandlingar 15:181–185Google Scholar
  15. Buhl-Mortensen L, Mortensen PB (2004) Gorgonophilus canadensis n. gen., n. sp. (Copepoda: Lamippidae), a gall forming endoparasite in the Octocoral Paragorgia arborea (L., 1758) from the northwest Atlantic. Symbiosis 37:155–168Google Scholar
  16. Carefoot T (n.d.) Learn about sea pens and relatives. Accessed 4 March 2016.Google Scholar
  17. Claparéde E (1867) Sur un crustacé parasite de la Lobularia digitata Delle Chiaje. Ann Sci Nat Zool Paléontology 8:23–28, sér. 5Google Scholar
  18. De Clippele LH, Buhl-Mortensen P, Buhl-Mortensen L (2015) Fauna associated with cold water gorgonians and sea pens. Cont Shelf Res 105:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dickinson P (1978) Conduction systems controlling expansion-contraction behavior in the sea pen Ptilosarcus gurneyi. Mar Freshw Behav Physiol 5:163–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dudley PL (1973) Enalcyonium carrikeri, a new species of lamippid copepod from Alcyonium carneum Agassiz in New England. Crustaceana 25:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gravier C (1914) Isidicola antarctica, Crustacé parasite de quelques Isidae de l’Antarctique sud-américaine. In Charcot J (ed), Deuxième Expédition Antarctique Francaise (1908–1910). Masson, Paris, Appendices pp. 99–110.Google Scholar
  22. Gray JE (1860) Revision of the family Pennatulidae, with some descriptions of some new species in the British Museum. Annu Mag Nat Hist 5:20–25, 3rd serCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grygier MJ (1980) Two new lamippid copepods parasitic on gorgonians from Hawaii and the Bahamas. Proc Biol Soc Wash 93:662–673Google Scholar
  24. Grygier MJ (1983) An endoparasitic lamippid copepod in Acanella from the North Atlantic. Crustaceana 45:176–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ho J-S (1984) Copepoda associated with sponges, cnidarians, and tunicates of the Sea of Japan. Rep Sado Mar Biol Stat Niigata Univ 14:23–61Google Scholar
  26. Humes AG (1957) Lamippe concinna sp. n., a copepod parasitic in a West African pennatulid coelenterate. Parasitology 47:447–451CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnstone AK (1969) Ptilosarcus guerneyi [sic] (Gray) as a host for symbioses, with a review of its symbionts. Master of Science Thesis, University of Puget SoundGoogle Scholar
  28. Joliet L (1882) Observations sur quelques crustacés de la Méditerranée. Sur une troisiéme espèce du genre Lamippe, Lamippe duthiersii, parasite du Paralcyonium elegans, M.-Edw. Arch Zool Exp Génet 10:101–110Google Scholar
  29. Jungersen HFE (1904) Pennatulida. Dan Ingolf Expedition 5a:1–106, pls. 1–3, 1 mapGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim I-H (2004) Six new species of Enalcyonium (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Lamippidae) parasitic in octocorals from New Caledonia. Korean J Syst Zool 20:141–154Google Scholar
  31. Kim I-H (2007) Copepods (Crustacea) associated with marine invertebrates from the Moluccas. Korean J Syst Zool Spec Issue 6:1–126Google Scholar
  32. Kim I-H (2009) Poecilostome copepods (Crustacea: Cyclopoida) associated with marine invertebrates from tropical waters. Korean J Syst Zool Spec Issue 7:1–90Google Scholar
  33. Laubier L (1972) Lamippe (Lamippe) bouligandi sp. nov., copépode parasite d’octocoralliare de la Mer du Labrador. Crustaceana 22:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Milne Edwards H (1840) Histoire Naturelle des Crustacés, Comprenant l’Anatomie, la Physiologie et la Classification de ces Animaux, vol 3. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, ParisGoogle Scholar
  35. Moroff T (1902) Studien iiber Octocorallien. Zool Jahrb Abt Syst Geogr Biol Tiere 17:363–410, pls. 14–18Google Scholar
  36. Nutting CC (1909) Alcyonaria of the California coast. Proc US Natl Mus 35:681–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Olsson P (1869) Prodromus faunae copepodorum parasitantium Scandinaviae. Acta Univ Lund 5(III)(8):1–49, pls. 1–2Google Scholar
  38. Pennant T (1777) British zoology, vol IV. Crustacea. Mollusca. Testacea. Benj. WhiteGoogle Scholar
  39. Rogers AD, Kemp KM, Davies AJ, Taylor ML (2016) The diseases of deep-water corals. In: Woodley CM, Downs CA, Bruckner AW, Porter JW, Galloway SB (eds) Diseases of coral. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 416–441Google Scholar
  40. Salmen A, Kaligis F, Mamangkey GF, Schrödl M (2008) Arthurius bunakenensis, a new tropical Indo-Pacific species of endoparasitic copepods from a sacoglossan opisthobranch host. Spixiana 31:199–205Google Scholar
  41. Schwabe E, Maiorova A (2015) Golfingicola abyssalis gen. et sp. nov., a new endoparasitic copepod (Crustacea) in a sipunculan from abyssal depths of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Res Pt II 111:135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Scott T (1901) Notes on gatherings of Crustacea, collected for the most part by the fishery steamer “Garland” and the steam trawler “St. Andrew” of Aberdeen, and examined during the year 1900. Ann Rep Fish Board Scotl 19:235–281, pls. 17–18Google Scholar
  43. Shimek R (2005) The life and death of sea pens. Reefkeeping 4(7). Accessed 4 March 2016Google Scholar
  44. Stock JH (1972) A new species of Lamippidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the Red Sea. Beaufortia 19:193–196Google Scholar
  45. Stock JH (1973) Copepoda of the family Lamippidae from the western Atlantic and the Caribbean. Stud Fauna Curaçao Other Caribbean Isl 43:22–41Google Scholar
  46. Stock JH (1978) Magnippe caputmedusae n. gen, n. sp. (Copepod: Lamippidae), a highly transformed endoparasite in octocorals of the genus Thesea from the Gulf of Mexico. Mem Hourglass Cruises 3:1–11Google Scholar
  47. Stock JH (1979) A new species of Linaresia (Copepoda: Lamippidae) endoparasitic in the octocoral Placogorgia from the Gulf of Mexico. Mem Hourglass Cruises 5:1–7Google Scholar
  48. Stock JH (1988) Lamippidae (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) parasitic in Alcyonium. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 68:351–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Thorell T (1859) Till kännedomen om vissa parasitiskt lefvande entomostraceer. Kongliga Sven Vetenskaps Akad Förh Stockh 16:335–362Google Scholar
  50. Uyeno D (2015) Two new species of symbiotic copepods from sea pens (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) collected in the Johor Straits, Singapore. Raffles Bull Zool Suppl 31:143–151Google Scholar
  51. van Ofwegen L (2016) Octocorallia. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at Accessed 27 September 2016.Google Scholar
  52. Verrill AE (1865) Synopsis of the polyps and corals of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. Ringgold and Captain John Rogers, U. S. N., from 1853 to 1856. Collected by Dr. W. Stimpson, naturalist of the Expedition. With descriptions of some additional species from the west coast of North America. Part II, Alcyonaria. Proc Essex Inst 4:181–196, pls. 5, 6Google Scholar
  53. Watling L, France SC, Pante E, Simpson A (2011) Biology of deep-water octocorals. Adv Mar Biol 60:41–122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Weightman JO, Arsenault DJ (2002) Predator classification by the sea pen Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Cnidaria): role of waterborne chemical cues and physical contact with predatory sea stars. Can J Zool 80:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Williams GC (1995) Living genera of sea pens (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea): illustrated key and synopses. Zool J Linn Soc 113:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Williams GC (2011) The Global Diversity of Sea Pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea). PLoS One 6:e22747CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. de Zulueta A (1908) Note préliminaire sur la famille des Lamippidæ copépodes parasites des Alcyonnaires. Arch Zool Exp Génet 9:1–30, 4th sérGoogle Scholar
  58. de Zulueta A (1910) Deuxième note sur la famille des Lamippidae copépodes parasites des alcyonnaires. Arch Zool Exp Génet 6:137–148, 5th sérGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyHofstra UniversityHempsteadUSA
  2. 2.Division of Invertebrate ZoologyAmerican Museum of Natural HistoryNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.McDaniel PhotographyVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations