Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 203–215 | Cite as

Distribution of meiofaunal abundances in a marine cave complex with secondary openings and freshwater filtrations

  • Rodrigo Riera
  • Óscar Monterroso
  • Jorge Núñez
  • Alejandro Martínez
Original Paper


Submerged sea caves are priority areas for conservation according to the Habitat Directive 92/43/CEE because of their unique biodiversity. A limited number of publications exist about communities living on sediments inside caves, mostly focused on the macrofaunal fraction (>0.5-mm body size). Meiofaunal communities (0.062–0.5-mm body size) have been largely neglected in ecological studies about communities inhabiting sea caves. In the present study, we analysed meiofaunal communities from Los Cerebros cave, a shallow marine cave (3–8 m in depth, 80 m long), with secondary openings in the inner parts and freshwater infiltrations. Sediment samples were taken by scuba divers using cylinders (cores), with known inner diameter. Sampling stations were sampled from the different sections of the cave (entrance, twilight zone, dark zone and jameos). Five surveys were carried out, from June 2003 to February 2005. Nematodes, copepods, and polychaetes dominated overwhelmingly the meiofaunal composition, with the remaining taxonomic groups being scarce. Generalized linear models showed that the high spatial and temporal variability observed among on the abundance of major meiofaunal groups inside the cave was better explained by the surveys, the section of the caves and the presence of freshwater. Higher abundances are observed near the entrance and in the station with regular freshwater input. Nematodes and polychaetes were clearly dominated by species extensively recorded in shallow subtidal sandy sediments on the study area.


Cave Meiofauna Nematodes Polychaetes Marine Freshwater influence Canary Islands Atlantic Ocean 



The staff of the Benthos Lab (University of La Laguna) are acknowledged for their help sorting samples and interchange of ideas throughout the study. We are grateful to Diego Fontaneto (National Research Council, Rome) for constructive comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript, and to Aguirre Servicios Topográficos SLL for financial support and logistic help during the field surveys.


  1. Ahyong ST, Andreakis N, Taylor J (2011) Mitochondrial phylogeny of the deep-sea squat lobsters, Munidopsidae (Galatheoidea). Zoologischer Anzeiger 250:367–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Álvarez F, Martínez A, Núñez L, Núñez J (2005) Sobre la presencia en Canarias de varias especies de braquiópodos (Brachiopoda: Rhynconellata) en cuevas y cornisas submarinas. Vieraea 33:261–279Google Scholar
  3. Andrade SC, Novo M, Kawauchi GY, Worsaae K, Pleijel F, Giribet G, Rouse GW (2015) Articulating “archiannelids”: phylogenomics and annelid relationships, with emphasis on meiofaunal taxa. Mol Biol Evol: msv157Google Scholar
  4. Ape F, Arigo C, Gristina M, Genovese L, Di Franco A, Di Lorenzo M, Baiata P, Aglieri G, Milisenda G, Mirto S (2015) Meiofaunal diversity and nematode assemblages in two submarine caves of a Mediterranean protected area. Mediterranean Marine Science 17:202–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bamber RN, Evans N, Robbins RS (2008) The marine soft‐sediment benthic communities of Hong Kong: a comparison of submarine cave and open habitats. Journal of Natural History 42:953–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauzà-Ribot MM, Juan C, Nardi F, Oromí P, Pons J, Jaume D (2012) Mitogenomic phylogenetic analysis supports continental-scale vicariance in subterranean thalassoid crustaceans. Current Biology 22:2069–2074CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Benedetti-Cecchi L, Airoldi L, Abbiati M, Cinelli F (1997) Exploring the causes of spatial variation in an assemblage of benthic invertebrates from a submarine cave with sulphur springs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 208:153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benedetti-Cecchi L, Airoldi L, Abbiati M, Cinelli F (1998) Spatial variability in the distribution of sponges and cnidarians in a sublittoral marine cave with sulphur-water springs. Journal of Marine Biological Association of United of Kingdom 78:43–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bishop RE, Humphreys WF, Cukrov N, Zic V, Boxhall GA, Cukrov M, Iliffe TM, Krsinic F, Moore WS, Pohlman JW, Sket B (2015) “Anchihaline” redefined as a subterranean estuary in crevicular or cavernous gelogical setting. J Crustac Biol 35:511–504Google Scholar
  10. Brito MC, Martínez A, Núñez J (2009) Changes in the stygobiont polychaete community of the Jameos del Agua, Lanzarote, as a result of bioturbation by the echiurid Bonellia viridis. Marine Biodiversity 39:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bussotti S, Terlizzi A, Fraschetti S, Belmonte G, Boero F (2006) Spatial and temporal variability of sessile benthos in shallow Mediterranean marine caves. Marine Ecology Progress Series 325:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carvalho S, Cunha MR, Pereira F, Pousão-Ferreira P, Santos M, Gaspar M (2012) The effect of depth and sediment type on the spatial distribution of shallow soft-bottom amphipods along the southern Portuguese coast. Helgoland Marine Research 66:489–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cicogna F (2003) Grotte marine: cinquant’anni di ricerca in Italia. Ministero dell’ambiente e della tutela del territorioGoogle Scholar
  14. Clarke KR (1993) Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Australian Journal of Ecology 18:117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clarke K, Warwick R (1994) Similarity-based testing for community pattern: the two-way layout with no replication. Marine Biology 118:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Curini-Galletti M, Artois T, Delogu V, De Smet WH, Fontaneto D, Jondelius U, Leasi F, Martínez A, Meyer-Wachsmuth I, Nilsson KS, Tongiorgi P, Worsaae K, Todaro MA (2012) Patterns of diversity in soft-bodied meiofauna: dispersal ability and body size matter. PLoS ONE 7:e33801CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. D’Addabbo MG, de Zio Grimaldi S, Sandulli R (2001) Heterotardigrada of two submarine Cavesin S. Domino Island (Tremiti Islands) in the Mediterranean Sea with the description of two new species of stygarctidae. Zoologischer Anzeiger-A Journal of Comparative Zoology 240:361–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Di Domenico M, Martínez A, Lana P, Worsaae K (2014) Molecular and morphological phylogeny of Saccocirridae (Annelida) reveals two cosmopolitan clades with specific habitat preferences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 75:202–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dixon P, Palmer M (2003) VEGAN, a package of R functions for community ecology. Journal of Vegetation Science 14:927–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fichez R (1990) Decrease in allochthonous organic inputs in dark submarine caves, connection with lowering in benthic community richness. Hydrobiologia 207:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fichez R (1991) Suspended particulate organic matter in a Mediterranean submarine cave. Marine Biology 108:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fosshagen A, Boxshall GA, Iliffe TM (2001) The Epacteriscidae, a cave-living family of calanoid copepods. Sarsia 86:245–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gerovasileiou V, Voultsiadou E (2015) Mediterranean marine caves as biodiversity reservoirs: a preliminary overview. Symposium on the conservation of dark habitats. p. 45Google Scholar
  24. Gerovasileiou V, Martínez A, Álvarez F, Boxshall G, Humphreys WF, Jaume D, Becking LE, Muricy G, van Hengstrum PJ, Dekeyzer S, Decock W, Vanhoorne B, Vandepitte L, Bailly N, Iliffe TM (2016) World Register of Marine Cave Species (WoRCS): a new thematic species database for marine cave biodiversity. Research Ideas and Outcomes 2:e10451. doi: 10.3897/rio.2.e10451
  25. Giere O (2009) Meiobenthology. The microscopic motile fauna of aquatic sediments. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  26. Gili JM, Coma R (1998) Benthic suspension feeders: their paramount role in littoral marine food webs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:316–321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gili J, Riera T, Zabala M (1986) Physical and biological gradients in a submarine cave on the Western Mediterranean coast (north-east Spain). Marine Biology 90:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gonzalez B, Petersen H, Martínez A, Worsaae K (2015) Colonization and adaptation of scale worms to interstitial and anchialine habitats (Aphroditiformia, Annelida). Oxford University Press, Cary, p E68Google Scholar
  29. Grimaldi De Zio S, D’Addabbo Gallo M, Morone De Lucia R, Vaccarella R, Grimaldi P (1982) Quattro nuove specie di Halechiniscidae rinvenute in due grotto sottomarine dell’Italia meridionale (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada) = four new species of marine Tardigrada found in two submarine caves of South Italy (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada). Cahiers de Biologie MarineGoogle Scholar
  30. Higgins RP, Thiel H (1988) Introduction to the study of meiofauna. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoenemann M, Neiber MT, Humphreys WF, Iliffe TM, Li D, Schram FR, Koenemann S (2013) Phylogenetic aalysis and systematic revision of Remipedia (Nectiopoda) from Bayesia analysis of molecular data. Journal of Crustacean Biology 33:603–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hou Z, Sket B, Li S (2014) Phylogenetic analyses of Gammaridae crustacean reveal different diversification patterns among sister lineages in the Tethyan region. Cladistics 30:352–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Humphreys WF (2000) Relict faunas and their derivation. In: Wilkens H, Culver DC, Humphreys WF (eds) Ecosystems of the world, 30 subterranean ecosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 417–432Google Scholar
  34. Iglikowska A, Boxshall GA (2013) Danielopolina revised: phylogenetic relationships of the extant genera of the family Thaumatocyprididae (Ostracoda: Myodocopa). Zoologischer Anzeiger 252:469–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Iliffe TM (1986) The zonation model for the evolution of aquatic faunas in anchialine caves. Stygologia 2:2–9Google Scholar
  36. Iliffe TM (1992) Anchialine cave biology. In: Camacho A (ed) The natural history of biospeleology. Monografías Museo Natural de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, MadridGoogle Scholar
  37. Iliffe TM, Botosaneanu L (2006) The remarkable diversity of subterranean Cirolanidae (Crustacea, Isopoda) in the peri-Caribbean and Mexican Realm. Bulletin l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 76:5–26Google Scholar
  38. Iliffe TM, Kornicker L (2009) Worldwide diving discoveries of living fossil animals from the depths of anchialine and marine caves. In: Macintyre IG, Rützler K, Lang MA (eds) Proc Biol Soc Wash. Smithsonian Institution Scholary Press, Washington DC, pp 269–280Google Scholar
  39. Iliffe TM, Wilkens H, Parzefall J, Williams D (1984) Marine lava cave fauna: composition, biogeography and origins. Science 225:309–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Iliffe TM, Parzefall J, Wilkens H (2000) Ecology and species distribution of the Monte Corona lava tunnel on Lanzarote (Canary Islands). In: Wilkens H, Culver DC, Humphreys WF (eds) Subterranean ecosystems ecosystems of the world. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  41. Jørgensen A, Boesgaard TM, Møbjerg N, Kristensen RM (2014) The tardigrade fauna of Australian marine caves: with descriptions of nine new species of Arthrotardigrada. Zootaxa 3802:401–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Juan C, Guzik MT, Jaume D, Coopers SJB (2010) Evolution in caves: Darwin’s ‘wrecks of ancient life’ in the molecular era. Molecular Ecology 19:3865–3880CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Koenemann S, Holsinger JR (1999) Phylogenetic analysis of the Amphipod Family Bogidiellidae S. Lat., and revision of taxa above the species level. Crustacean Research 72:781–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Koenemann S, Bloechl A, Martínez A, Iliffe TM, Hoenemann M, Oromí P (2009) A new, disjunct species of Speleonectes (Remipedia, Crustacea) from the Canary Islands. Marine Biodiversity 39:215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Laumer CE, Bekkouche N, Kerbl A, Goetz F, Neves RC, Sørensen MV, Kristensen RM, Hejnol A, Dunn CW, Giribet G (2015) Spiralian phylogeny informs the evolution of microscopic lineages. Current Biology 25:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martí R, Uriz MJ, Ballesteros E, Turon X (2004) Benthic assemblages in two Mediterranean caves: species diversity and coverage as a function of abiotic parameters and geographic distance. Journal of Marine Biological Association of United of Kingdom 84:557–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Martínez A, Núñez L, Monterroso Ó, Núñez J (2004) Tanatocenosis de moluscos gasterópodos en sedimentos de una cueva submarina de la costa oeste de Tenerife (Islas Canarias). Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 16:161–177Google Scholar
  48. Martínez A, Palmero AM, Brito MC, Núñez J, Worsaae K (2009) Anchialine fauna of the Corona lava tube (Lanzarote, Canary Islands): diversity, endemism and distribution. Marine Biodiversity 39:169–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Martínez A, Di Domenico M, Worsaae K (2013) Evolution of cave Axiokebuita and Speleobregma (Scalibregmatidae, Annelida). Zoologica Scripta 51:623–636Google Scholar
  50. Martínez A, Di Domenico M, Worsaae K (2014) Gain of palps within a lineage of ancestrally burrowing annelids (Scalibregmatidae). Acta Zoologica 95:421–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Martínez A, Di Domenico M, Rouse G, Worsaae K (2015) Phylogeny of Protodrilidae (Annelida) inferred by total evidence analyses. Cladistics 31:250–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martínez A, Kvindebjerg K, Iliffe TM, Worsaae K (2016) Evolution of cave suspension feeding in Protodrilidae (Annelida). Zoologica Scripta. doi: 10.1111/zsc.12198 Google Scholar
  53. Martínez A, Gonzalez BC, Worsaae K, Wilkens H, Núñez J, Oromí P, Iliffe TM (in press) Guide to the anchialine ecosystems of Jameos del Agua and Túnel de la Atlántida. Medio Ambiente, Cabildo de Lanzarote, Arrecife, LanzaroteGoogle Scholar
  54. Meland K, Willassen E (2007) The disunity of “Mysidacea”(Crustacea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44:1083–1104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Murrell P (2005) R graphics, CRC computer science & data analysis. Chapman & Hall, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  56. Mwinyi A, Bailly X, Bourlat SJ, Jondelius U, Littlewood DTJ, Podsiadlowski L (2010) The phylogenetic position of Acoela as revealed by the complete mitochondrial genome of Symsagittifera roscoffensis. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:309–312CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Navarro-Barranco C, Guerra-García J, Sánchez-Tocino L, García-Gómez J (2012) Soft-bottom crustacean assemblages in Mediterranean marine caves: the cave of Cerro Gordo (Granada, Spain) as case study. Helgoland Marine Research 66:567–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Navarro-Barranco C, Guerra-García JM, Sánchez-Tocino L, Jiménez-Prada P, Cea S, García-Gómez JC (2013) Soft-bottom diversity patterns in marine caves; lessons from crustacean community. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 446:22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Navarro-Barranco C, Guerra-García JM, Sánchez-Tocino L, García-Gómez JC (2014) Amphipods from marine cave sediments of the southern Iberian Peninsula: diversity and ecological distribution. Scientia Marina 78:415–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Neiber MT, Hartke TR, Stemme T, Bergmann A, Rust J, Iliffe TM, Koenemann S (2011) Global biodiversity and phylogenetic evaluation of Remipedia (Crustacea). PLoS ONE 6:e19627CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Núñez J, Ocaña O, Brito MC (1997) Two new species (Polychaeta: Fauveliopsidae and Nerillidae) and other polychaetes from the marine lagoon cave of Jameos del Agua, Lanzarote (Canary Islands). Bulletin of Marine Science 60:252–260Google Scholar
  62. Núñez J, Brito MC, Docoito JR (2005) Anélidos poliquetos de Canarias: Catálogo de especies, distribución y hábitats. Vieraea 33:297–321Google Scholar
  63. Núñez J, Martínez A, Brito MC (2009) A new species of Sphaerosyllis Claparède, 1863 (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Exogoninae) from the Atlantida Tunnel, Lanzarote, Canary Islands. Marine Biodiversity 39:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Oertel A, Patzner RA (2007) The biology and ecology of a submarine cave: the Grotta del Bel Torrente (Central‐East Sardegna, Italy). Marine Ecology 28:60–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ortea J (1995) Estudio de las especies atlánticas de Paradoris Bergh, 1884 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Discodorididae) recolectadas en las Islas Canarias. Avicennia 3:5–27Google Scholar
  66. Palacin C, Masalles D (1986) Some data on the meiofauna of an underwater cave of the island of Majorca, Spain. Publ Dep Zool, Barcelona 12:15–26Google Scholar
  67. Palacín C, Gili JM, Martin D (1992) Evidence for coincidence of meiofauna spatial heterogeneity with eutrophication processes in a shallow-water Mediterranean bay. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 35:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pérez Dionis G, Espinosa Sáez J, Ortea Rato JA (2011) Una nueva especie del género Neritilia Martens, 1879 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neritiliidae) de las islas Canarias. Vieraea 38:117–121Google Scholar
  69. Pettibone MH (1985) Polychaete worms from a cave in the Bahamas and from experimental wood panels in deep water of the North Atlantic (Polynoidae, Macellicephalinae, Harmothoinae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 98:127–149Google Scholar
  70. Riedl R, Ozretić B (1969) Hydrobiology of marginal caves. Part I. General problems and introduction. International Review of Hydrobiology 54:661–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rieger RM (1980) A new group of interstitial worms, Lobatocerebridae nov. fam. (Annelida) and its significance for metazoan phylogeny. Zoomorphologie 95:41–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Riera R, Núñez J, Brito MC (2006) Two new species of Comesomatidae Filipjev, 1922 (Nematoda: Chromadorida) from sandy bottoms of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Zootaxa 1126:53–61Google Scholar
  73. Riera R, Núñez J, Brito MC (2007) A new species of the interstitial genus Neopetitia (Polychaeta, Syllidae, Eusyllinae) from Tenerife, with modified acicular chaetae in males. Helgoland Marine Research 61:221–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Riera R, Núñez J, Brito MC (2010) Check-list of interstitial polychaetes from intertidal and shallow subtidal soft bottoms of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Archipelago 27:21–39Google Scholar
  75. Riera R, Núñez J, Brito MC, Tuya F (2011) Temporal variability of a subtropical meiofaunal assemblage: contrasting effects at the species and assemblage-level. Vie et Milieu 61:129–137Google Scholar
  76. Riera R, Núñez J, Brito MC (2012) Influence of a freshwater runoff on temporal variations of an intertidal meiofauna assemblage. Vie et Milieu 62:105–114Google Scholar
  77. Riera R, Núñez J, Brito MC (2013) Temporal dynamics of shallow subtidal meiobenthos from a beach in Tenerife (Canary Islands, northeast Atlantic Ocean). Acta Oceanologica Sinica 32:44–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rundell RJ, Leander BS (2010) Masters of miniaturization: convergent evolution among interstitial eukaryotes. Bioessays 32:430–437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Sandulli R, D’addabbo MG, De Lucia MM, D’addabbo R, Pietanza R, de Zio Grimaldi S (1999) Preliminary investigations on meiofauna of two caves in San Domino Island (Tremiti Archipelago, Adriatic Sea). Biologia Marina Mediterranea 6:437–440Google Scholar
  80. Schmidt-Rhaesa A, Rothe BH, Martínez AG (2013) Tubiluchus lemburgi, a new species of meiobenthic Priapulida. Zoologischer Anzeiger 253:158–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schratzberger M, Jennings S (2002) Impacts of chronic trawling disturbance on meiofaunal communities. Marine Biology 141:991–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sket B (1996) The ecology of anchihaline caves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11:221–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Stock JH, Iliffe TM, Williams WD (1986) The concept of “anchialine” reconsidered. Stygologia 2:90–92Google Scholar
  84. Team RDC (2008) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  85. Tilzer M (1970) Hydrobiology of marginal caves. Part III. Nerilla marginalis n.sp. (Polychaeta Archiannelida) a recent immigrant into a marginal cave in Istra (Yugoslavia). Internationale Revue der gesammten Hydrobiologie 55:221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Todaro MA, Leasi F, Bizzarri N, Tongiorgi P (2006) Meiofauna densities and gastrotrich community composition in a Mediterranean sea cave. Marine Biology 149:1079–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vacelet J (2006) New carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Poecilosclerida) collected from manned submersibles in the deep Pacific. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 148:553–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vacelet J, Boury-Esnault N (1995) Carnivorous sponges. Nature 373:26–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vacelet J, Boury-Esnault N, Harmelin J-G (1994) Hexactinellid cave, a unique deep-sea habitat in the scuba zone. Deep Sea Research I 41:965–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. van Hengstum PJ, Scott DB (2011) Ecology of foraminifera and habitat variability in an underwater cave: distinguishing anchialine versus submarine cave environments. Journal of Foraminiferan Research 41:201–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wägele J-W (1985) On the Tethyan origin of the stygobiont Anthuridea Curassanthura and Cyathura (Stygocyathura), with description of Curassanthura canariensis n. sp. from Lanzarote (Crustacea, Isopoda). Stygologia 1:258–269Google Scholar
  92. Wagner HP (1994) A monographic review of the Thermosbaenacea (Crustacea: Peracarida). A study on their morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography. Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 291:1–338Google Scholar
  93. Wilkens H, Parzefall J, Iliffe TM (1986) Origin and age of the marine stygofauna of Lanzarote, Canary Islands. Mitteilungen aus den Hamburgischen Zoologische Museum und Institut 83:223–230Google Scholar
  94. Wilkens H, Parzefall J, Ribowski A (1990) Population biology and larvae of the Anchialine Crab Munidopsis polymorpha (Galatheidae) from Lanzarote (Canary Islands). Journal of Crustacean Biology 10:667–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wilkens H, Iliffe TM, Oromí P, Martínez A, Tysall TN, Koenemann S (2009) The Corona lava tube, Lanzarote: geology, habitat diversity and biogeography. Marine Biodiversity 39:155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Worsaae K, Rouse GW (2009) Is Diurodrilus an annelid? Journal of Morphology 269:1426–1455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Worsaae K, Martínez A, Núñez J (2009) Nerillidae (Annelida) from the Corona lava tube, Lanzarote with description of Meganerilla cesari n. sp. Marine Biodiversity 39:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yager J (2013) Speleonectes cokei, new species of Remipedia (Crustacea: Speleonectidae) from a submerged ocean cave near Caye Chapel, Belize. Zootaxa 3710:354–362CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Zabala M, Riera T, Gili JM, Barange M, Lobo A, Peñuelas J (1989) Water flow, trophic depletion, and benthic macrofauna impoverishment in a submarine cave from the Western Mediterranean. Marine Ecology 10:271–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zuur A, Ieno EN, Smith GM (2007) Analysing ecological data. Springer Science & Business Media, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodrigo Riera
    • 1
  • Óscar Monterroso
    • 1
  • Jorge Núñez
    • 2
  • Alejandro Martínez
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Centro de Investigaciones Medioambientales del Atlántico (CIMA SL)de TenerifeSpain
  2. 2.Benthos Laboratory, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of La LagunaLa LagunaSpain
  3. 3.Marine Biological SectionUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  4. 4.Center of Ecosystems StudyNational Research CouncilVerbaniaItaly

Personalised recommendations