Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 179–194 | Cite as

Free-living marine nematode diversity from the Indian coasts

Original Paper
  • 179 Downloads

Abstract

We present an updated taxonomic list of free-living nematode community from Indian coasts and Andaman & Nicobar Islands based on available published literatures. The Indian coast was divided into six basic habitats. The faunal list presents 288 nematode species, 227 genus, 44 families and 9 orders. The continental shelf had the highest species richness (225), followed by intertidal areas (81). The coastal diversity of nematofaunal community is higher in East than west sector. Halalaimus, Viscosia, Sabatieria, Bathylaimus, and Theristus are present in all regions. The fluctuation in species number throughout the Indian coast is probably due to differences in geomorphology, habitat heterogeneity among coastal regions, and unbalanced research efforts. Present paper may help to give more information on marine nematodes.

Keywords

Free-living nematodes Indian coasts Andaman & Nicobar Islands Faunal list 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to The Vice Chancellor, Presidency University for her support and encouragement. This work is supported by grants awarded to M. G. by Presidency University, Kolkata through a University Research Fellowship, and grants awarded to S. M. from MoES (MoES/36/OOIS/Extra/24/2013 and FRPDF grant of Presidency University. The authors thank three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. The authors would also like to express their appreciation to the members of the Marine Ecology Laboratory for their ever willing help and cooperation.

References

  1. Alongi DM (1987a) Inter-estuary variation and intertidal zonation of free-living nematode communities in tropical mangrove systems. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 40:103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alongi DM (1987b) Intertidal zonation and seasonality of meiobenthos in tropical mangrove estuaries. Mar Biol 95:447–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alongi DM (1990) Community dynamics of free-living nematodes in some tropical mangrove and sandflat habitats. Bull Mar Sci 46:358–373Google Scholar
  4. Altaff K, Sugumaran J, Naveed Md S (2005) Impact of tsunami on meiofauna of Marina Beach, Chennai, India. Curr Sci 89(1):34–38Google Scholar
  5. Anbuchezhian R, Ravichandran S, Serebiah S, Ramprabu C (2010) Composition and seasonal fluctuations of nematodes in Palk Bay, Southeast Coast of India. Middle-East J Sci Res 6(2):189–197Google Scholar
  6. Anderson MJ, Gorley RN, Clarke KR (2008) PERMANOVA+ for PRIMER: guide to software and statistical methods. PRIMER-E, Plymouth UKGoogle Scholar
  7. Anila Kumary KS (2008) Diversity of meiobenthic nematodes in the Poonthura estuary (southwest coast of India). J Mar Biol Assoc India 50(1):23–28Google Scholar
  8. Annapurna C, Vijaya Bhanu C, Srinivasa RM, Siva Lakshmi MV, Cooper LMG, Kasivishweshwara RY (2012) Free-living nematodes along the continental slope off northeast coast of India. J Mar Biol Assoc India 54(2):52–60Google Scholar
  9. Ansari ZA, Parulekar AH (1993) Distribution, abundance and ecology of the meiofauna in a tropical estuary along the west coast of India. Hydrobiologia 262:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ansari ZA, Parulekar AH (1998) Community structure of meiobenthos from a tropical estuary. Indian J Mar Sci 27:362–366Google Scholar
  11. Ansari KGMT, Lyla PS, Ajmal Khan S (2012a) New records of free-living marine nematodes (Nematoda: Enoplida) from Indian waters. J Mar Biol Assoc India 54(2):39–45Google Scholar
  12. Ansari KGMT, Lyla PS, Ajmal Khan S (2012b) Faunal composition of metazoan meiofauna from the southeast continental shelf of India. Indian J Geo-Mar Sci 41(5):457–467Google Scholar
  13. Ansari KGMT, Manokaran S, Raja S, Ajmal Khan S, Lyla PS (2012c) Checklist of nematodes (Nematoda: Adenophorea) from southeast continental shelf of India. Check List 8(3):414–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ansari KGMT, Lyla PS, Ajmal Khan S (2013a) New reports of free-living marine nematodes, Chromadorina granulopigmentata (Wieser, 1951) and Neochromadora poecilosomoides (Filipjev, 1918) (Chromadorida: Chromadoridae) from Indian waters. Indian J Nematol 43(1):17–23Google Scholar
  15. Ansari KGMT, Lyla PS, Ajmal Khan S (2013b) New records of five Daptonema species (Nematoda: Xyalidae) from Indian waters. J Mar Biol Assoc India 55(1):71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ansari KGMT, Manokaran S, Raja S, Lyla PS, Ajmal Khan S (2013c) Interaction of free-living marine nematodes in the artificial mangrove environment (southeast coast of India). Environ Monit Assess 186:293–305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ansari KGMT, Lyla PS, Ajmal Khan S (2015a) New records of six Sabatieria species (Nematoda: Comesomatidae) from Indian waters. Indian J Geo-Mar Sci 44(4):1–10Google Scholar
  18. Ansari KGMT, Pattnaik AK, Rastogi G, Bhadury P (2015b) An inventory of free-living marine nematodes from Asia’s largest coastal lagoon, Chilika, India. Wetl Ecol Manag 23(5):881–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ansari KGMT, Lyla PS, Ajmal Khan S, Bhadury P (2015c) Diversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes in the southwest continental shelf off Bay of Bengal and their link to abiotic variables. Mar Ecol 37:631–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Appeltans W, Vanhoorne B, Decock W et al (2012) The magnitude of global marine species diversity. Curr Biol 22:2189–2202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Armenteros M, Pérez-García JA, Ruiz-Abierno A, Díaz-Asencio L, Helguera Y, Vincx M, Decraemer W (2010) Effects of organic enrichment on nematode assemblages in a microcosm experiment. Mar Environ Res 70:374–382CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Baliarsingh SK, Srichandan S, Sahu KC, Lotliker AA (2015) First record of Desmoscolex falcatus (Nematoda: Adenophorea: Desmoscolecida: Desmoscolecidae) from Rushikulya estuary, Odisha, India. Indian J Geo-Mar Sci 44(4):519–521Google Scholar
  23. Balsamo M, Albertelli G, Ceccherelli VU, Coccioni R, Colangelo MA, Curini-Galletti M, Danovaro R (2010) Meiofauna of the Adriatic Sea: current state of knowledge and future perspectives. Chem Ecol 26(1):45–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Balsamo M, Semprucci F, Frontalini F, Coccioni R (2012) Meiofauna as a tool for marine ecosystem biomonitoring. In: Cruzado A (ed) Marine Ecosystems. Tech Publisher, Rijeka, pp 77–104Google Scholar
  25. Banse K (1968) Hydrography of the Arabian Sea shelf of India and Pakistan and effects on demersal fishes. Deep-Sea Res 15:45–79Google Scholar
  26. Bhadury P, Mondal N, Ansari KGMT, Philip P, Pitale R, Presade A, Nagale P, Apte D (2015) Checklist of free-living marine nematodes from intertidal sites along the central west coast of India. Check List 11(2):1605. doi: 10.15560/11.2.1605
  27. Boufahja F, Hedfi A, Amorri J, Aïssa P, Beyrem H, Mahmoudi E (2011) An assessment of the impact of chromium-amended sediment on a marine nematode assemblage using microcosm bioassays. Biol Trace Elem Res 142:242–255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brock JC, McClain MC, Luther ME, Hay WW (1991) The phytoplankton bloom in the north western Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon of 1979. J Geophys Res 96:20623–20642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chinnadurai G, Fernando OJ (2006) New records of free-living marine nematodes from India. Rec Zool Surv India l06(Part 4):45–54Google Scholar
  30. Chinnadurai G, Fernando OJ (2007) Meiofauna of mangroves of the southeast coast of India with special reference to the free-living marine nematodes assemblages. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 72:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clarke KR, Gorely RN (2006) Primer v6: user manual/tutorial. PRIMER-E, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  32. Clarke KR, Green RH (1988) Statistical design and analysis for a “biological effects” study. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 46:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (2001) A further biodiversity index applicable to species list: variation in taxonomic distinctness. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 216:265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Clarke KR, Somerfield PJ, Chapman MG (2008) Testing of null hypotheses in explanatory community analyses: similarity profiles and biota-environment linkage. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 366:56–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cook AA, Lambshead PJD, Hawkins LE, Mitchell N, Levin LA (2000) Nematode abundance at the oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea. Deep-Sea Res II 47:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Coull BC (1973) Esturaine meiofauna: a review: trophic relationships and microbial interactions. In: Stevenson LH, Colwel RR (eds) Estuarine microbial ecology. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp 449–511Google Scholar
  37. Damodaran R (1972) Meiobenthos of the mudbanks of Kerala coast. Proc Nat Acad Sci India 38:288–297Google Scholar
  38. Datta TK, Navarrete ADJ, Mahapatro A (2015) Rhynchonema dighaensis sp. nov. (Monhysterida: Xyalidae): a marine nematode from the Indian coast with an illustrated guide and modified key for species of Rhynchonema Cobb, 1920. Zootaxa 3905(3):365–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Datta TK, Gunaseker S, Mahapatro A (2014) First report on the occurrence of free-living marine Nematode Oncholaimellus brevicauda Timm 1969 (Oncholaimidae: Enoplida) from India. Indian J Geo-Mar Sci 43(10):1922–1926Google Scholar
  40. Findlay SEG, Tenore KR (1982) Effect of free-living marine nematode (Diplolaimella chitwoodi) on detrital carbon mineralization. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 8:161–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fraschetti S, Gambi C, Giangrande A, Musco L, Terlizzi A, Danovaro R (2006) Structural and functional response of meiofauna rocky assemblages to sewage pollution. Mar Pollut Bull 52:540–548CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gerlach SA, Schrage M (1969) Freilebenden Nematodenals Nahrung der Sandgernele Crangon crangon. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Bedeutung der Meiofaunaals Nahrung für das marine Makrobenthos. Oecologia (Ber) 2:362–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gopalakrishna VV, Sastry JS (1985) Surface circulation over the shelf off the east coast of India during the southwest monsoon. Indian J Mar Sci 14:62–65Google Scholar
  44. Guilini K, Bezerra TN, Deprez T, Fonseca G, Holovachov O, Leduc D, Miljutin D, Moens T, Sharma J, Smol N, Tchesunov A, Mokievsky V, Vanaverbeke J, Vanreusel A, Vincx M (2016) NeMys: world database of free-living marine nematodes. Accessed at http://nemys.ugent.be on 2016-07-18
  45. Heip C (1980) Meiobenthos as a tool in the assessment of marine environmental quality. Rapp PV Reun Cons Int Explor Mer 179:182–187Google Scholar
  46. Heip C, Vincx M, Vranken G (1985) The ecology of marine nematodes. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 23:399–489Google Scholar
  47. Hodda M, Nicholas WL (1985) Meiofauna associated with mangroves in the Hunter River estuary and Fullerton Cove, South-Eastern Australia. Aust J Mar Freshwat Res 36:41–50Google Scholar
  48. Hopper BE, Fell JW, Cefalu RC (1973) Effect of temperature on life cycles of nematodes associated with the mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) detrital system. Mar Biol 23:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ingole BS, Parulekar AH (1993) Limnology of freshwater lakes at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad 6:589–600Google Scholar
  50. Kumar SP, Ramaiah N, Gauns M, Sarma VVSS, Muraleedharan PM, Raghukumar S, Kumar MD, Madhupratap M (2001) Physical forcing of biological productivity in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon. Deep-Sea Res II 48:1115–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kumar SP, Muraleedharan PM, Prasad TG, Gauns M, Ramaiah N, de Souza SN, Sardesai S, Madhupratap M (2002) Why is the Bay of Bengal less productive during summer monsoon compared to the Arabian Sea? Geophys Res Lett 29:881–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kumar A, Sen D, Bhadury P (2015) Unravelling free-living marine nematode community structure from a biodiversity-rich tropical coastal setting based on molecular approaches. Mar Biodivers 45:537–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lambshead PJD, Schalk P (2001) Overview of marine invertebrate biodiversity. In: Levin S (ed) Encyclopedia of biodiversity, 3rd ed. Academic Press, San Francisco, pp 543–549Google Scholar
  54. Lambshead PJD, Brown CJ, Ferrero TJ, Hawkins LE, Smith CR, Mitchell NJ (2003) Biodiversity of nematodes assemblages from the region off the Clarion–Clipperton Fracture Zone, an area of commercial mining interest. BMC Ecol 3:1–16CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Lee CM, Jones BH, Brink KH, Fischer AS (2000) The upper ocean response to monsoonal forcing in the Arabian Sea: seasonal and spatial variability. Deep-Sea Res II 47:1177–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Levin LA, Gage JD (1998) Relationships between oxygen, organic matter and the diversity of bathyal macrofauna. Deep-Sea Res 45:129–163Google Scholar
  57. Levin LA, Huggett CL, Wishner KF (1991) Control of deep sea benthic community structure by oxygen and organic-matter gradients in the eastern Pacific Ocean. J Mar Res 49:763–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lorenzen S (1994) The phylogenetic systematics of free-living nematodes. The Ray Society, London, 383 ppGoogle Scholar
  59. Mahmoudi E, Essid N, Beyrem H, Hedfi A, Boufahja F, Vitiello P, Aïssa P (2005) Effects of hydrocarbon contamination on a free living marine nematode community: results from microcosm experiments. Mar Pollut Bull 50:1197–1204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mirto S, La Rosa T, Gambi C, Danovaro R, Mazzola A (2002) Nematode community response to fish-farm impact in the western Mediterranean. Environ Pollut 116:203–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Nanajkar MR, Ingole BS (2007) Nematode species diversity as indicator of stressed benthic environment along the central west coast of India. In: Desai PV, Roy R (Eds.), Diversity and life processes from ocean and land. Goa University, India, pp 42–52Google Scholar
  62. Nanajkar M, Ingole B (2010a) Comparison of tropical nematode communities from the three harbours, west coast of India. Cah Biol Mar 51(1):9–18Google Scholar
  63. Nanajkar M, Ingole B (2010b) Impact of sewage disposal on a nematode community of a tropical sandy beach. J Environ Biol 31(5):819–826Google Scholar
  64. Nanajkar M, Ingole B, Chatterjee T (2011) Spatial distribution of the nematodes in the subtidal community of the Central West Coast of India with emphasis on Terschellingia longicaudata (Nematoda: Linhomoeidae). Ital J Zool 78(2):222–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nicholas WL (2001) Seasonal variations in nematode assemblages on an Australian temperate ocean beach; the effect of heavy seas and unusually high tides. Hydrobiologia 464:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Olafsson E (1995) Meiobenthos in mangrove areas in Eastern Africa with emphasis on assemblage structure of free-living marine nematodes. Hydrobiologia 312:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Olafsson E, Carlstrom S, Ndaro SGM (2000) Meiobenthos of hypersaline tropical mangrove sediment in relation to spring tide inundation. Hydrobiologia 426:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Paikary S, Srichandan S, Baliarsingh SK, Sahu BK, Panigrahy RC (2012) Meiobenthos distribution in estuarine and beach sediments of Rushikulya estuary, east coast of India: a case study. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 3(2):391–396Google Scholar
  69. Platt HM, Warwick RM (1980) The significance of free-living nematodes to the littoral ecosystem. In: Price JH, Irvine DEG, Farnham WF (eds) The shore environment, 2nd edn. Academic Press, London, pp 729–759Google Scholar
  70. Rao GC (1969) The marine interstitial fauna inhabiting the beach sands of Orissa coast. J Zool Soc India 21(1):89–104Google Scholar
  71. Rao GC (1980) On the zoogeography of the interstitial meiofauna of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indian Ocean. Rec Zool Surv India 77:153–178Google Scholar
  72. Rao GC (1986) Meiofauna of the mangrove sediment in South Andaman. J Andaman Sci Assoc 2(2):23–32Google Scholar
  73. Rao GC (1987) Meiofauna of the marine National Park, South Andaman. J Andaman Sci Assoc 3:88–97Google Scholar
  74. Rao GC (1988) Meiofauna of the intertidal sediments on Great Nicobar. J Andaman Sci Assoc 4(2):89–100Google Scholar
  75. Rao GC (1993) Littoral meiofauna of Little Andaman. Ocassional paper no. 155. 1–124 (Published by the Director, Zool Surv India, Kolkata)Google Scholar
  76. Rao GC, Ganapati PN (1968) Interstitial fauna inhabiting the beach sands of the Waltair coast. Proc Natl Inst Sci India 34:82–125Google Scholar
  77. Rao GC, Nagabhushanam AK (1969) Preliminary observations on a collection of shore-fauna of the Orissa coast. India Proc Zool Soc Calcutta 22:67–82Google Scholar
  78. Sajan S, Damodaran R (2007) Faunal composition of meiobenthos from the shelf regions off the west coast of India. J Mar Biol Assoc India 49(1):19–26Google Scholar
  79. Sajan S, Joydas TV, Damodaran R (2010) Meiofauna of the western continental shelf of India, Arabian Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 86:665–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schratzberger M, Forster RM, Goodsir F, Jennings S (2008) Nematode community dynamics over an annual production cycle in the central North Sea. Mar Environ Res 66:508–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Schückel S, Sell AF, Kihara TC, Koeppen A, Kröncke I, Reiss H (2013) Meiofauna as food source for small-sized demersal fish in the southern North Sea. Helgol Mar Res 67:203–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. SCOR Working Group 76 (1994) Suggested criteria for describing deep-sea benthic communities: the final report of SCOR Working Group 76. Prog Oceanogr 34:81–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Semprucci F (2013) Marine nematodes from the shallow subtidal coast of the Adriatic Sea: species list and distribution. Int J Biodivers 1:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Semprucci F, Sbrocca C, Rocchi M, Balsamo M (2015a) Temporal changes of the meiofaunal assemblage as a tool for the assessment of the ecological quality status. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 95(2):247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Semprucci F, Losi V, Moreno M (2015b) A review of Italian research on free-living marine nematodes and the future perspectives on their use as Ecological Indicators (EcoInds). Mediterr Mar Sci 16(2):352–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Semprucci F, Balsamo M, Sandulli R (2016) Assessment of the Ecological Quality (EcoQ) of the Venice lagoon using the structure and biodiversity of the meiofaunal assemblages. Ecol Indic 67C:451–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shetye SR (1990) Hydrography and circulation off the west coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon 1987. J Mar Res 48:359–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shetye SR, Shenoy SSC, Gouveia AD, Michael GS, Sundar D, Nampoothri G (1991) Wind driven coastal upwelling along the western boundary of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon. Cont Shelf Res 11:1397–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Singh R, Ingole BS (2016) Structure and function of nematode communities across the Indian western continental margin and its oxygen minimum zone. Biogeosciences 13:191–209. doi: 10.5194/bg-13-191-2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Singh R, Ingole BS, Nanajkar MR (2009) The life cycle of the free-living marine nematode Innocuonema tentabunda de man, 1890. Nematol Mediterr 37:235–238Google Scholar
  91. Sinha B, Choudhury A, Baqri QH (1987) Studies on the nematodes from mangrove swamps of deltaic Sundarbans, West Bengal, India. (III) Anoplostoma macrospiculum n. sp. (Anoplostomatidae: Nematoda). Curr Sci 56(11):539–540Google Scholar
  92. Sivaleela G, Venkataraman K (2013) Free-living marine nematodes of Tamil Nadu coast. Rec Zool Surv India. Ocassional paper no. 336. 1–45 (Published by the Director, Zool Surv India, Kolkata)Google Scholar
  93. Soetaert K, Heip C (1995) Nematode assemblage of deep sea and shelf break sites in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 125:171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Soltwedel T (2000) Metazoan meiobenthos along continental margins: a review. Prog Oceanogr 46:59–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Somerfield P, Gee M, Aryuthaka C (1998) Meiofaunal communities in a Malaysian mangrove forest. Mar Biol Ass UK 78:717–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Thilagavathi B, Das B, Saravanakumar A, Raja K (2011) Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, east coast of India. Ocean Sci J 46(2):63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tietjen JH (1980) Microbial meiofaunal interrelationships: a review. Microbiol 1980:335–338Google Scholar
  98. Tita G, Vincx M, Desrosiers G (1999) Size spectra, body width and morphotypes of intertidal nematodes: an ecological interpretation. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 79:1007–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Vanhove S, Vincx M, Van Gansbeke D, Gijselinck W, Schram D (1992) The meiobenthos of five mangrove vegetation types in Gazi Bay, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 247:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vanreusel A, Vincx M, Van Ganskbeke D, Gijselinck W (1992) Structural analysis of the meiobenthos communities of the shelf break area in two stations of the Gulf of Biscay (N.E. Atlantic). Belg J Zool 122:185–202Google Scholar
  101. Varadharajan D, Soundarapandian P (2013) Meiofauna distribution from Arukkattuthurai to Aiyyampattinam, south east coast of India. Open Access Sci Rep 2(682). doi: 10.4172/scientificreports.682
  102. Venekey V, Fonseca-Genevois VG, Santos PJP (2010) Biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes on the coast of Brazil: a review. Zootaxa 2568:39–66Google Scholar
  103. Venkataraman K, Wafar M (2005) Coastal and marine biodiversity of India. Indian J Mar Sci 34(1):57–75Google Scholar
  104. Vijaya Bhanu C, Annapurna C, Srinivasa Rao M, Siva Lakshmi MV, Sanjeevi P, Satyanarayana A (2013) New records of free-living marine nematodes (Nematoda: Enoplida) from East Coast of India. Int J Sci Res 2(11):517–520Google Scholar
  105. Wilson MR (2000) Loss of taxonomists is a threat to pest control. Nature 407(6804):559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. WoRMS Editorial Board (2016) World register marine species, available from http://www.marinespecies.org/ at VLIZ Accessed 5 May 2016

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marine Ecology Laboratory, Department of Life SciencesPresidency UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations