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Re-evaluation of the Doriopsilla areolata Bergh, 1880 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) subspecies complex in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and its relationship to South African Doriopsilla miniata (Alder & Hancock, 1864) based on molecular data

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Abstract

Doriopsilla areolata is a nudibranch sea slug with a broad geographic range, spanning from mainland Spain (southwestern Europe) to Angola (southwestern Africa) in the eastern Atlantic, and is also found in the Caribbean. This species was divided into three subspecies: D. areolata areolata (Europe to Cape Verde), D. areolata albolineata (Ghana to Angola), and D. areolata nigrolineata (Caribbean), each with a discrete range. This paper uses phylogenetic and population genetics tools to determine whether the subspecies scheme is supported by molecular data. Additionally, specimens of Doriopsilla miniata from South Africa, a species that is hypothetically closely related to D. areolata, is also included in the analysis, primarily because of the morphological similarities between D. areolata and D. miniata. Results from AMOVA, Bayesian, and pairwise analyses revealed that the molecular data do not support the proposed subspecies scheme and suggest that South African populations identified as D. miniata belong to D. areolata.

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Acknowledgments

We are extremely grateful to Lindsey Groves from the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County and Rafael Araujo from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid, Spain (MNCN) for their assistance with access to their collections. Terry Gosliner, Rebecca Johnson and Elizabeth Kools kindly gave us access to the California Academy of Sciences collection. Two anonymous reviewers provided comments that greatly improved the quality of this paper.

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Correspondence to Ángel Valdés.

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Goodheart, J., Valdés, Á. Re-evaluation of the Doriopsilla areolata Bergh, 1880 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) subspecies complex in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and its relationship to South African Doriopsilla miniata (Alder & Hancock, 1864) based on molecular data. Mar Biodiv 43, 113–120 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-012-0136-1

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