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Table 5 Keywords for the constructs from the literature

From: Understanding the creation of trust in cryptocurrencies: the case of Bitcoin

Construct/Keywords Description Reference
“Bitcoin is increasingly used in a number of ‘fast payment’ scenarios, where the exchange time between the currency and goods is short” Page - 907 Karame, G. O., & Androulaki, E. (2015). Double Spending Fast Payments in Bitcoin Categories and Subject Descriptors. ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems, 18(1), 906–917
Electronic Transfer “Bitcoin success is mostly due to the innovative use of a peer-peer network to implement all aspects of a currencies lifestyle, from creation to its transfer among the users.” Page - 978 Decker, C., Decker, C. and Wattenhofer, R. (2016) ‘Information propagation in the Bitcoin network Information Propagation in the Bitcoin Network’, 13-th IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, (August), pp. 1–10. doi:
Immutability “Bitcoin’s distributed, verifiable, and immutable public transaction ledger, known as the blockchain, holds out the promise of fast, cheap, peer-to-peer financial transactions.” Page - 220 Folkinshteyn, D. and Lennon, M. (2016) ‘Braving Bitcoin: A technology acceptance model (TAM) analysis’, Journal of Information Technology Case and Application Research. Routledge, 18(4), pp. 220–249. doi:
Decentralization Bitcoin is a completely decentralized system with no server or central authority as everything is validated by cryptography. Maurer, B., Nelms, T. C. and Swartz, L. (2013) ‘“When perhaps the real problem is money itself!”: The practical materiality of Bitcoin’, Social Semiotics, 23(2), pp. 261–277. doi:
Openness Bitcoin is a new class of the accountable system, which allows users to transfer currency securely without a centralized regulator using a publicly verifiable open ledger Zyskind, G., Nathan, O. and Pentland, A. S. (2015) ‘Decentralizing privacy: Using blockchain to protect personal data’, Proceedings - 2015 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops, SPW 2015, pp. 180–184. doi:
Less Volatility
The Bitcoin market is currently very volatile and susceptible to speculative bubbles compared to other fiat currencies Katsiampa, P. (2017) ‘Volatility estimation for Bitcoin: A comparison of GARCH models’, Economics Letters, 158, pp. 3–6. doi:
Regulation The latest trends argue that Bitcoin requires regulation in order to survive as a security and become a viable form of investment and holder of value. Burks, C. (2017). Bitcoin: Breaking Bad or Breaking Barriers? North Carolina Journal of Law & Technology, 18(5)
Security of the Exchange BitCoin is more vulnerable to cyber-attacks than traditional currencies. Of 40 BitCoin exchanges examined and found that 18 have been closed down after cyber-attacks. Ciaian, P., Rajcaniova, M. and Kancs, d’Artis (2016) ‘The economics of BitCoin price formation’, Applied Economics. Routledge, 48(19), pp. 1799–1815. doi:
Bitcoin is used as a store of value for speculative investment or savings’ protection Sas, C. and Khairuddin, I. (2017) ‘Design for trust an exploration of the challenges and opportunities of Bitcoin users’, Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 6499–6510. doi:
Profits The profits of informed trading in the Bitcoin market are estimated to be considerably large Feng, Wenjun, Yiming Wang, and Zhengjun Zhang. 2018. “Informed Trading in the Bitcoin Market.” Finance Research Letters 26(November 2017):63–70
Alternative Currency Bitcoin is an alternative currency in countries with weak economic system like Venezuela England, C. and Fratrik, C. (2018) ‘Where to bitcoin?’, Journal of Private Enterprise, 33(1), pp. 9–30. Available at: