Electronic Markets

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 157–171 | Cite as

Constructing online switching barriers: examining the effects of switching costs and alternative attractiveness on e-store loyalty in online pure-play retailers

  • Ezlika Ghazali
  • Bang Nguyen
  • Dilip S. Mutum
  • Amrul Asraf Mohd-Any
Research Paper

Abstract

Developing switching barriers to retain customers has become a critical marketing strategy for online retailers. However, research on the role of switching barriers in e-retailing is still limited. Recent trends show that when competitors are just one click away, it is questionable if customer loyalty can be achieved at all in online environments. This leads to the research question on whether switching barriers have any impact on e-loyalty in pure-play retailers. The paper examines the influence of switching barriers on customer retention (i.e., e-store loyalty) and further investigates the moderating effects of switching costs and alternative attractiveness. Data were gathered via a survey of 590 shoppers of online pure-play retailers in the UK. Findings show that customer satisfaction and the two dimensions of switching barriers (perceived switching costs and perceived attractiveness of alternatives) significantly influence customer loyalty. Contrary to findings in earlier studies, it was found that switching costs did not moderate the relationships between satisfaction and loyalty nor between perceived attractiveness of alternatives and loyalty. The paper makes imperative recommendations to develop switching barriers and to foster loyalty along with suggestions for future research.

Keywords

Switching barriers Switching costs Alternative attractiveness Customer satisfaction E-store loyalty Online pure-play retailers 

JEL Classification

M3 Marketing Advertising 

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Albert, L. J., Aggarwal, N., & Hill, T. R. (2014). Influencing customer’s purchase intentions through firm participation in online consumer communities. Electronic Markets, 24(4), 285–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alt, R., & Österle, H. (2013). Electronic markets on internet marketing. Electronic Markets, 23(3), 173–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, R. E., & Srinivasan, S. S. (2003). E-satisfaction and e-loyalty: a contingency framework. Psychology and Marketing, 20(2), 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, E. W., & Sullivan, M. W. (1993). The antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction for firms. Marketing Science, 12(2), 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, E., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: findings from Sweden. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aydin, S., Özer, G., & Arasil, Ö. (2005). Customer loyalty and the effect of switching costs as a moderator variable. A case in the Turkish mobile phone market. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 23(1), 89–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 421–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bakos, J. Y. (1997). Reducing buyer search costs: implications for electronic marketplaces. Management Science, 43(12), 1676–92Google Scholar
  12. Balabanis, G., Reynolds, N., & Simintiras, A. (2006). Bases of e-store loyalty: perceived switching barriers and satisfaction. Journal of Business Research, 59(2), 214–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bansal, H. S., & Taylor, S. F. (1999). The service provider switching model (SPSM). Journal of Service Research, 2(2), 200–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bauer, H. H., Grether, M., & Leach, M. (2002). Building customer relations over the Internet. Industrial Marketing Management, 31(2), 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bell, S. J., Auh, S., & Smalley, K. (2005). Customer relationship dynamics: service quality and customer loyalty in the context of varying levels of customer expertise and switching costs. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(2), 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bendapudi, N., & Berry, L. L. (1997). Customers’ motivations for maintaining relationships with service providers. Journal of Retailing, 73(1), 15–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benson, J., & Bandalos, D. L. (1992). Second-order confirmatory factor analysis of the reactions to tests scale with cross-validation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 27(3), 459–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bolton, R. N. (1998). A dynamic model of the duration of the customer’s relationship with a continuous service provider: the role of satisfaction. Marketing Science, 17(1), 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bolton, R. N., & Drew, J. H. (1991). A multistage model of customers’ assessments of service quality and value. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(4), 375–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bourdeau, B. L. (2005). A new examination of service loyalty: identification of the antecedents and outcomes of an attitudinal loyalty framework. Unpublished PhD thesis, Florida State University.Google Scholar
  21. Burnham, T. A. (1998). Measuring and managing consumer switching costs to improve customer retention in continuous services. Unpublished PhD thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas.Google Scholar
  22. Burnham, T. A., Frels, J. K., & Mahajan, V. (2003). Consumer switching costs: a typology, antecedents, and consequences. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 31(2), 109–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carlson, J., & O’Cass, A. (2011). Creating commercially compelling website-service encounters: an examination of the effect of website-service interface performance components on flow experiences. Electronic Markets, 21(4), 237–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chebat, J.-C., Davidow, M., & Borges, A. (2010). More on the role of switching costs in service markets: a research note. Journal of Business Research, 64(8), 823–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chen, P.-Y., & Hitt, L. M. (2002). Measuring switching costs and the determinants of customer retention in Internet-enabled businesses: a study of the online brokerage industry. Information Systems Research, 13(3), 255–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chin, W. W. (1998). Issues and opinion on structural equation modelling. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 22(1), 7–16.Google Scholar
  28. Coelho, P. S., & Henseler, J. (2012). Creating customer loyalty through service customization. European Journal of Marketing, 46(3/4), 331–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Colgate, M. R., & Lang, B. (2001). Switching barriers in consumer markets: an investigation of the financial services industry. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(4), 332–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Colgate, M., Tong, V. T.-U., Lee, C. K.-C., & Farley, J. U. (2007). Back from the brink: why customers stay. Journal of Service Research, 9(3), 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Corstjens, M., & Lal, R. (2000). Building store loyalty through store brands. Journal of Marketing Research, 37(3), 281–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dagger, T. S., & David, M. E. (2012). Uncovering the real effect of switching costs on the satisfaction-loyalty association: the critical role of involvement and relationship benefits. European Journal of Marketing, 46(3/4), 447–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J. J., & Dillman, D. A. (2008). International handbook of survey methodology. New York: L. Erlbaum Associatesm.Google Scholar
  34. de Ruyter, K., Wetzels, M., & Bloemer, J. (1998). On the relationship between perceived service quality, service loyalty and switching costs. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 9(5), 436–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dick, A., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dillman, D. A., Phelps, G., Tortora, R., Swift, K., Kohrell, J., Berck, J., & Messera, B. L. (2009). Response rate and measurement differences in mixed mode surveys using mail, telephone, Interactive Voice Response (IVR) and the Internet. Social Science Research, 38(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Emanuelsson, E. & Uhlén, V. S. (2007). Virtual switching barriers: Switching barriers customer satisfaction as predictors of customer loyalty for online retailers. Unpublished Masters thesis, Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  38. Evanschitzky, H., & Wunderlich, M. (2006). An examination of moderator effects in the four-stage loyalty model. Journal of Service Research, 8(4), 330–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fornell, C. (1992). A national customer satisfaction barometer: the Swedish experience. Journal of Marketing, 56(1), 6–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Forsythe, S. M. & Shi, B. (2003). Consumer patronage and risk perceptions in internet shopping. Journal of Business Research, 56(11), 867–75.Google Scholar
  41. Friedman, T. L. (1999). Amazon. You: New York Times.Google Scholar
  42. Frow, P. E., Payne, A., Wilkinson, I. F., & Young, L. (2011). Customer management and CRM: addressing the dark side. Journal of Services Marketing, 25(2), 79–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fuentes-Blasco, M., Saura, I.-G., Berenguer-Contriacute, G., & Moliner-Velaacutezquez, B. (2010). Measuring the antecedents of e-loyalty and the effect of switching costs on website. The Service Industries Journal, 30(11), 1837–1852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Garbarino, E., & Johnson, M. S. (1999). The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships. Journal of Marketing, 63(2), 70–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gerbing, D. W., & Anderson, J. C. (1988). An updated paradigm for scale development incorporating unidimensionality and its Assessment. Journal of Marketing Research, 25(2), 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goode, M. M. H., & Harris, L. C. (2007). Online behavioural intentions: an empirical investigation of antecedents and moderators. European Journal of Marketing, 41(5–6), 512–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: a global perspective (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  48. Harris, L. C., & Goode, M. M. H. (2004). The four levels of loyalty and the pivotal role of trust: a study of online service dynamics. Journal of Retailing, 80(2), 139–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hauser, J. R., Simester, D. I., & Wernerfelt, B. (1994). Customer satisfaction incentives. Marketing Science, 13(4), 327–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Heide, J. B., & Weiss, A. M. (1995). Vendor consideration and switching behaviour for buyers in high-technology markets. Journal of Marketing, 59(3), 30–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hennig-Thurau, T., Gwinner, K. P., & Gremler, D. D. (2000). Why customers build relationships with companies—and why not. In T. Hennig-Thurau & U. Hansen (Eds.), Relationship marketing: Gaining competitive advantage through customer satisfaction and customer retention (pp. 369–391). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Holloway, B. B. (2003). The role of switching barriers in the online service recovery process. Unpublished PhD thesis, The University of Alabama.Google Scholar
  54. Hu, L.-T. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling, 6(1), 1–55.Google Scholar
  55. Ji, M. F. & Wood, W. (2007). Purchase and consumption habits: not necessarily what you intend. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(4), 261–76.Google Scholar
  56. Johnson, E. J., Bellman, S. & Lohse, G. L. (2003). Cognitive lock-in and the power law of practice. Journal of Marketing, 67(2), 62–75.Google Scholar
  57. Jones, M. A., Mothersbaugh, D. L., & Beatty, S. E. (2000). Switching barriers and repurchase intentions in services. Journal of Retailing, 76(2), 259–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jones, M. A., Mothersbaugh, D. L., & Beatty, S. E. (2002). Why customers stay: measuring the underlying dimensions of services switching costs and managing their differential strategic outcomes. Journal of Business Research, 55(6), 441–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jones, M. A., Reynolds, K. E., Mothersbaugh, D. L., & Beatty, S. E. (2007). The positive and negative effects of switching costs on relational outcomes. Journal of Service Research, 9(4), 335–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Keaveney, S. M. (1995). Customer switching behaviour in service industries: an exploratory study. Journal of Marketing, 59(2), 71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kenny, D. A. (2014). Measuring model fit. Retrieved 12 September, 2015, from http://davidakenny.net/cm/fit.htm.
  62. Kim, S. S., & Son, J.-Y. (2009). Out of dedication or constraint? A dual model of post-adoption phenomena and its empirical test in the context of online services. MIS Quarterly, 33(1), 49–70.Google Scholar
  63. Klemperer, P. (1987). Markets with consumer switching costs. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 102(2), 375–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Korgaonkar, P. K., & Wolin, L. D. (1999). A multivariate analysis of web usage. Journal of Advertising Research, 39(2), 53–68.Google Scholar
  65. Lee, J., Lee, J., & Feick, L. (2001). The impact of switching costs on the customer satisfaction-loyalty link: mobile phone service in France. Journal of Services Marketing, 15(1), 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Li, D., Browne, G. J., & Chau, P. Y. K. (2006). An empirical investigation of web site use using a commitment-based model. Decision Sciences, 37(3), 427–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Little, T. D., Bovaird, J. A., & Widaman, K. F. (2006). On the merits of orthogonalizing powered and product terms: implications for modeling interactions among latent variables. Structural Equation Modeling, 13(4), 497–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Marsh, H. W., Wen, Z., Hau, K.-T., Little, T. D., Bovaird, J. A., & Widaman, K. F. (2007). Unconstrained structural equation models of latent interactions: contrasting residual- and mean-centered approaches. Structural Equation Modeling A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14(4), 570–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mathwick, C. (2002). Understanding the online consumer: a typology of online relational norms and behaviour. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 16(1), 40–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mazursky, D., LaBarbera, P., & Aiello, A. (1987). When consumers switch brands. Psychology and Marketing, 4(1), 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Methlie, L. B., & Nysveen, H. (1999). Loyalty of on-Line bank customers. Journal of Information Technology, 14(4), 375–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mintel-Oxygen (2007). Internet shopping: an oft market study. Office of Fair Trading.Google Scholar
  73. Mitchell, V. W. (1999). Consumer perceived risk: conceptualisations and models. European Journal of Marketing, 33(1/2), 163–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mittal, V., & Kamakura, W. A. (2001). Satisfaction, repurchase intent, and repurchase behaviour: investigating the moderating effect of customer characteristics. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(1), 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mohd-Any, A. A., Winklhofer, H., & Ennew, C. (2015). Measuring users’ value experience on a travel website (e-Value): what value is co-created by the user? Journal of Travel Research, 54(4), 496–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mutum, D. S., Ghazali, E. M., Nguyen, B., & Arnott, D. (2014). Online loyalty and its interaction with switching barriers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(6), 942–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nguyen, B., Simkin, L., Canhoto, A. (2015). The Dark Side of CRM: Customers, Relationships and Management (Eds) Routledge.Google Scholar
  79. Nielson, C. C. (1996). An empirical examination of switching cost investments in business-to-business marketing relationships. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 11(6), 38–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nielson-Online (2009). The Marketing Pocket Book. Henley-On-Thames: Oxfordshire: World Advertising Research Center.Google Scholar
  81. Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer. Boston: McGraw-Hill, Irwin.Google Scholar
  82. Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(4), 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. ONS (2014). Statistical bulletin: Internet Access – Households and Individuals Available at: 2014 http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/rdit2/internet-access---households-and-individuals/2014/stb-ia-2014.html#tab-Internet-Shopping (accessed on 15 Sept 2015).
  84. Otim, S., & Grover, V. (2010). E-commerce: a brand name’s curse. Electronic Markets, 20(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pappas, I. O., Kourouthanassis, P. E., Giannakos, M. N., & Chrissikopoulos, V. (2014). Shiny happy people buying: the role of emotions on personalized e-shopping. Electronic Markets, 24(3), 193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Patterson, P. G., & Smith, T. (2003). A cross-cultural study of switching barriers and propensity to stay with service providers. Journal of Retailing, 79(2), 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ping, R. A. (1993). The effects of satisfaction and structural constraints on retailer exiting, voice, loyalty, opportunism, and neglect. Journal of Retailing, 69(3), 320–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Polo, Y., & Sesé, J. F. (2009). How to make switching costly: the role of marketing and relationship characteristics. Journal of Service Research, 12(2), 119–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Polo, Y., Sesé, F. J., & Verhoef, P. C. (2011). The effect of pricing and advertising on customer retention in a liberalizing market. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 25(4), 201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ranaweera, C., & Prabhu, J. (2003). The influence of satisfaction, trust and switching barriers on customer retention in a continuous purchasing setting. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 14(3/4), 374–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Reichheld, F. F. (1996). The loyalty effect: The hidden force behind growth, profits, and lasting value. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  92. Reichheld, F. F., & Schefter, P. (2000). E-loyalty: your secret weapon on the web. Harvard Business Review, 78(4), 105–113.Google Scholar
  93. Retailpro (2015). Online Still Wooing Customers from Brick and Mortars. Retrieved from http://www.retailpro.com/News/blog/index.php/2015/01/26/online-still-wooing-customers-from-brick-and-mortars/ (accessed on 26 Jan 2015).
  94. Roberts, W. A. (1989). Towards an understanding of relational commitment. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Arizona States University.Google Scholar
  95. Rusbult, C. E., Zembrodt, I. M., & Gunn, L. K. (1982). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(6), 1230–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rusbult, C. E., Martz, J. M., & Agnew, C. R. (1998). The investment model scale: measuring commitment level, satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Personal Relationships, 5(4), 357–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rust, R. T., & Kannan, P. K. (2003). E-service: a new paradigm for business in the electronic environment. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Seiders, K., Voss, G. B., Grewal, D., & Godfrey, A. L. (2005). Do satisfied customers buy more? Examining moderating influences in a retailing context. Journal of Marketing, 69(4), 26–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shankar, V., Smith, A. K., & Rangaswamy, A. (2003). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in online and offline environments. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20(2), 153–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sharma, N., & Patterson, P. G. (2000). Switching costs, alternative attractiveness and experience as moderators of relationship commitment in professional, consumer services. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(5), 470–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sindell, K. (2000). Loyalty marketing for the internet age. Chicago: Dearborn Trade.Google Scholar
  102. Szymanski, D. M., & Henard, D. H. (2001). Customer satisfaction: a meta-analysis of the empirical evidence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(1), 16–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Thatcher, J. B., & George, J. F. (2004). Commitment, trust, and social involvement: an exploratory study of antecedents to web shopper loyalty. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 14(4), 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. To, T. (1996). Multi-period competition with switching costs: an overlapping generations formulation. Journal of Industrial Economics, 44(1), 81–87.Google Scholar
  105. Tsai, H.-T., & Huang, H.-C. (2007). Determinants of e-repurchase intentions: an integrative model of quadruple retention drivers. Information and Management, 44(3), 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tsai, H.-T., Huang, H.-C., Jaw, Y.-L., & Chen, W.-K. (2006). Why online customers remain with a particular e-retailer: an integrative model and empirical evidence. Psychology and Marketing, 23(5), 447–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Voss, G. B., Parasuraman, A., & Grewal, D. (1998). The roles of price, performance, and expectations in determining satisfaction in service exchanges. Journal of Marketing, 62(4), 46–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Weiss, A. M., & Heide, J. B. (1993). The nature of organizational search in high technology markets. Journal of Marketing Research, 30(2), 220–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Xia, L., Monroe, K. B., & Cox, J. L. (2004). The price is unfair! A conceptual framework of price fairness perceptions. Journal of Marketing, 68(4), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yang, Z., & Peterson, R. T. (2004). Customer perceived value, satisfaction, and loyalty: the role of switching costs. Psychology and Marketing, 21(10), 799–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yim, C. K., Chan, K. W., & Hung, K. (2007). Multiple reference effects in service evaluations: roles of alternative attractiveness and self-image congruity. Journal of Retailing, 83(1), 147–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zauberman, G. (2003). The intertemporal dynamics of consumer lock-in. Journal of Consumer Research, 30(3), 405–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Applied Informatics at University of Leipzig 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ezlika Ghazali
    • 1
  • Bang Nguyen
    • 2
  • Dilip S. Mutum
    • 3
  • Amrul Asraf Mohd-Any
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business & AccountancyUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.School of BusinessEast China University of Science and TechnologyXuhui DistrictPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Nottingham University Business School MalaysiaThe University of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia

Personalised recommendations