Advertisement

Electronic Markets

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 11–37 | Cite as

A metrics suite of cloud computing adoption readiness

  • Robert J. Kauffman
  • Dan Ma
  • Martin Yu
Research Paper

Abstract

Recent research on cloud computing adoption suggests the lack of a deep understanding of its benefits by managers and organizations. We present a firm-level cloud computing readiness metrics suite and assess its applicability for various cloud computing service types. We propose four relevant categories for firm-level adoption readiness, including technology and performance, organization and strategy, economic and valuation, and regulatory and environmental dimensions. We further define sub-categories and measures for each. Our evidence of the appropriateness of the metrics suite is derived based on a series of empirical cases developed from our project work, which encompasses input from field interviews, business press sources, industry white papers, non-governmental organizations, and government agency sources. We also assess how the application of the metrics suite supports organizational users of cloud computing.

Keywords

Adoption readiness Cloud computing Empirical assessment Managerial decision-making Metrics suite Technology adoption 

JEL Classification

L86 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Singapore Management University’s School of Information Systems Research Centre (SISRC) for research funding. We also benefitted from the helpful comments of the special issue guest editors, the anonymous reviewers, and the co-chairs, discussants and participants of the 2014 International Conference on the Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems and Services (GECON 2014). We also had useful input from Jun Liu, Kustini Lim-Wavde and Dan Geng. All of the errors are our own.

References

  1. Alexander, M., & Young, D. (1996). Outsourcing: where’s the value? Long Range Planning, 29(5), 728–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). Value creation in e-business. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6–7), 493–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ang, S., & Straub, D. (1998). Production and transaction economies and IS outsourcing a study of the U. S. banking industry. MIS Quarterly, 22(4), 535–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anthens, G. (2010). Security in the cloud. Communications of the ACM, 53(11), 16–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aral, S., & Weill, P. (2007). IT assets, organizational capabilities, and firm performance. Organization Science, 18(5), 763–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A. D., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., Lee, G., Patterson, D., Rabkin, A., Stoica, I., & Zaharia, M. (2010). A view of cloud computing. Communication of the ACM, 53(4), 50–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aron, R., Clemons, E. K., & Reddi, S. (2005). Just right outsourcing: understanding and managing risk. Journal of Management Information Systems, 22(2), 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asia Cloud Computing Association. (2014). Cloud readiness index 2014. Singapore.Google Scholar
  9. Au, Y., & Kauffman, R. J. (2003). What do you know? Rational expectations and information technology investment. Journal of Management Information Systems, 20(2), 49–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barczak, G., Sultan, F., & Hultink, E. J. (2007). Determinants of IT usage and new product performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 24(6), 600–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benaroch, M., Dai, Q., & Kauffman, R. J. (2010). Should we go our own way? Backsourcing flexibility in IT services contracts. Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(4), 317–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benbasat, I., Goldstein, D. K., & Mead, M. (1987). The case research strategy in studies of information systems. MIS Quarterly, 11(3), 369–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benlian, A., & Hess, T. (2011). Opportunities and risks of software-as-a-service: findings from a survey of IT executives. Decision Support Systems, 52(1), 232–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhat, J. M. (2013). Adoption of cloud computing by SMEs in India: a study of the institutional factors. In Proc. 19th Americas Conf. on Info. Sys., Assoc. for Info. Sys., Chicago, IL, 1–8.Google Scholar
  15. Borgman, H. P., Bahli, B., Heier, H., Schewski, F. (2013). Cloudrise: exploring cloud computing adoption and governance with the TOE framework. In Proc. 46 th Hawaii Intl. Conf. Sys. Sci., New York, NY: ACM Comp. Soc. Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bourne, M. C. S., Mills, J. F., Wilcox, M., Neely, A. D., & Platts, K. W. (2000). Designing, implementing and updating performance measurement systems. International Journal of Operation & Production Management, 20(7), 754–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brandenburger, A., & Stuart, H. (1996). Value-based business strategy. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 5(1), 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Breuning, P. J., & Treacy, B. C. (2009). Privacy, security issues raised by cloud computing. Private Security and Law, 8(10), 1–4.Google Scholar
  19. Briand, L. C., Daly, J. W., & Wüst, J. K. (1999). A unified framework for coupling measurement in object-oriented systems. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 25(1), 91–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buyya, R., Broberg, J., & Goscinski, A. M. (Eds.). (2010). Cloud computing: Principles and paradigms (Vol. 87). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Callewaert, O., & Deckers, H. (2011). Cloud adoption study: cloud computing is gaining momentum. New York: White paper, Deloitte.Google Scholar
  22. Callewaert, P., Paul, A. R., & Blatman, P. (2009). Cloud computing forecasting change. New York: White paper, Deloitte.Google Scholar
  23. Carlo, J. L., Lyytinen, K., & Rose, G. M. (2012). A knowledge-based model of radical innovation in small software firms. MIS Quarterly, 36(3), 865–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Centre for Economics and Business Research. (2010). The cloud dividend: part 1 – the economic benefits of cloud computing to business and the wider EMEA economy: France, Germany, Italy, Spain. London, U.K.Google Scholar
  25. Centre for Economics and Business Research. (2011). The cloud dividend: part 2 – the economic benefits of cloud computing to business and the wider EMEA economy: comparative analysis of the impact on aggregated industry sectors. London, U.K.Google Scholar
  26. Chesbrough, H. (2010). Business model innovation: opportunities and barriers. Long Range Planning, 43(2), 354–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chidamber, S. R., & Kemerer, C. F. (1994). A metrics suite for object oriented design. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 20(6), 476–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cisco. (2014). Implement your cloud computing strategy more easily. San Jose, CA.Google Scholar
  29. Cloud Security Alliance. (2010). Cloud security alliance unveils governance, risk management and compliance (GRC) stack. Orlando: Cloud Security Alliance Conference.Google Scholar
  30. Cloud Service Measurement Index Consortium (CSMIC). (2012). Service measurement index framework, version 2.0, draft. Carnegie Mellon University, Silicon Valley, Moffett Field, CA.Google Scholar
  31. Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Columbus, L. (2012). Forecasting public cloud adoption in the enterprise. Forbes, July 2.Google Scholar
  33. Columbus, L. (2015). Roundup of cloud computing forecasts and markets estimates. Forbes, January 24.Google Scholar
  34. Croll, A. (2013). How should we measure clouds? InformationWeek, March 20.Google Scholar
  35. Curtis, J. (2014). 10 top cloud computing providers for 2014. Computer Business Review.Google Scholar
  36. Darrow, B. (2013). Gartner: Public cloud services to hit $131b by 2017. San Francisco: GigaOM.Google Scholar
  37. Davern, M., & Kauffman, R. J. (2000). Discovering potential and realizing value from IT investments. Journal of Management Information Systems, 16(4), 121–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. DeCarlo, A. C. (2014). Cloud service management and cloud monitoring for providers: a primer. Newton: TechTarget.Google Scholar
  39. DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. (1992). Information systems success: the quest for the dependent variable. Information Systems Research, 3(1), 60–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Desarbo, W. S., Di Benedetto, C. A., Song, M., & Sinha, I. (2005). Revisiting the Miles and Snow strategic framework: Uncovering interrelationships between strategic types, capabilities, environmental uncertainty, and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 26(1), 47–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dewangan, V., & Godse, M. (2014). Towards a holistic enterprise innovation performance measurement system. Technovation, 34(6), 535–545.Google Scholar
  42. Edmondson, A. C., & McManus, S. E. (2007). Methodological fit in management field research. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1246–1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Edvinsson, L., & Marlone, M. (1997). Intellectual capital: The proven way to establish your company’s real value by measuring its hidden values. London: Piatkus.Google Scholar
  44. El Emam, K., Benlarbi, S., Goel, N., & Rai, S. N. (2001). The confounding effect of class size on the validity of object-oriented metrics. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 27(7), 630–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. El-Gazzar, R. F. (2014). A literature review on cloud computing adoption issues in enterprises. In B. Bergvall-Kåreborn & P. A. Nielsen (Eds.), Creating value for all through IT, IFIP advances ICT, 429 (pp. 214–242). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Espadanal, M., & Oliveira, T. (2012). Cloud computing adoption by firms. Paper 30. In Proc. Medit. Conf. on Info. Sys., Guimares, Portugal.Google Scholar
  47. Etro, F. (2009). The economic impact of cloud computing on business creation, employment and output in Europe: an application of the endogenous market structures approach to a GPT innovation. Journal of Economics and Business, 54(2), 179–208.Google Scholar
  48. European Commission. (2014). Call for tenders: study on measuring the economic impact of cloud computing in Europe. SMART 2014–0031, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  49. Fujitsu. (2014). The impact of cloud. In association with Economist Intelligence Unit, London, UK, 1–21.Google Scholar
  50. Garg, S. K., Versteeg, S., & Buyya, R. A. (2013). A framework for ranking of cloud computing services. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29(4), 1012–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Garrison, G., Kim, S., & Wakefield, R. L. (2012). Success factors for deploying cloud computing. Communications of the ACM, 55(9), 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gartner. (2012). Gartner says worldwide cloud services market to surpass $109 billion in 2012. Press release, Stamford, CT, September 18.Google Scholar
  53. Gartner. (2013). Forecast overview: public cloud services, worldwide, 2011–2016, 4Q12. Stamford, CT.Google Scholar
  54. Gartner. (2014). Business process as a service (BPaas). Stamford, CT.Google Scholar
  55. Graebner, K., & Eisenhardt, M. (2007). Theory building from cases: opportunities and challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1), 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grover, V., Cheon, M. J., & Teng, J. T. C. (1996). The effect of service quality and partnership on the outsourcing of information systems functions. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12(4), 89–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Güemes, C. (Ed.). (2013). Data analytics as a service: unleashing the power of cloud and big data. Bezons: White paper, Atos SE.Google Scholar
  58. Habib, S. M., Hauke, S., Ries, S., & Mühlhäuser, M. (2012). Trust as a facilitator: a survey. Journal of Cloud Computing, 1(19), 1–18.Google Scholar
  59. Han, K., Kauffman, R. J., & Nault, B. R. (2011). Returns to information technology outsourcing. Information Systems Research, 22(4), 824–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harris, J. G., & Alter, A. E. (2010). Cloudrise: rewards and risks at the dawn of cloud computing. Research report, Accenture Institute for High Performance, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  61. Hauff, S., Huntgeburth, J., & Veit, D. (2014). Exploring uncertainties in a marketplace for cloud computing: a revelatory case study. Journal of Business & Economic, 84(3), 441–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hirschheim, R., Heinzl, A., & Dibbern, J. (2011). Information systems outsourcing: Enduring themes, global (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  63. Hsu, P. F., Ray, S., & Li-Hsieh, Y. Y. (2014). Examining cloud computing adoption intention, pricing mechanism, and deployment models. International Journal of Information Management, 34(4), 474–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Huang, J., Kauffman, R. J., Ma, D. (2014). Pricing strategy for cloud computing: a damaged services perspective. Working paper, School of Information Systems, Singapore Management University.Google Scholar
  65. Huber, R. L. (1993). How continental bank outsourced its “crown jewels.”. Harvard Business Review, 71(1), 121–129.Google Scholar
  66. Iansiti, M., & Richards, G. L. (2012). A study of the economic impact of cloud computing. Technology, Policy and Management, 12(4), 344–372.Google Scholar
  67. IBM. (2009). Seeding the clouds: Key infrastructure elements for cloud computing. NY: Yorktown Heights.Google Scholar
  68. IBM. (2015). Tap into it. More than 100 cloud applications. NY: Yorktown Heights.Google Scholar
  69. ISACA. (2012). Cloud computing market maturity study results. Available at www.isaca.org.
  70. Iyer, B., & Henderson, J. C. (2012). Business value from clouds: learning from users. MIS Quarterly Executive, 11(1), 51–60.Google Scholar
  71. Jamshidi, P., Ahmad, A., & Pahl, C. (2013). Cloud migration research: a systematic review. IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, 1(2), 142–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Johnston, M. (2015). New market trend of analytics as a service driving the growth of ‘global big data professional services market’ through 2015–2019. Industrial Automation Asia.Google Scholar
  73. Jorion, P. (2000). Value at risk: The new benchmark for managing financial risk (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  74. Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (1996). Using the balanced scorecard as a strategic management system. Harvard Business Review, 74(1), 75–85.Google Scholar
  75. Kauffman, R. J., Ma, D., & Yu, M. (2014). A metrics suite for cloud computing adoption readiness. In J. Altmann, K. Vanmechelen, & O. M. Rana (Eds.), Economics of grids, clouds, systems and services, lecture notes in computer science (pp. 19–35). Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  76. Khajeh-Hosseini, A., Greenwood, D., Smith, J. W., & Somerville, I. (2012). The cloud adoption toolkit: supporting cloud adoption decisions in the enterprise. Software—Practice & Experience, 42(4), 447–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kim, A., & Moskowitz, S. (2010). Incentivized cloud computing: a principal agent solution to the cloud computing dilemma. Technical report, Naval Research Lab, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  78. Koehler, P., Anandasivam, A., Ma, D., Weinhardt, C. (2010). Customer heterogeneity and tariff biases in cloud computing. In Proc. 2010 Intl. Conf. Info. Sys., Atlanta, GA: Association for Information Systems.Google Scholar
  79. KPMG Australia. (2011). Modeling the economic impact of cloud computing. Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  80. Lacity, M. C., Solomon, S., Yan, A., & Willcocks, L. P. (2011). Business process outsourcing studies: a critical review and research directions. Journal of Information Technology, 26(4), 21–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Li, C. (2011). Cloud computing system management under flat rate pricing. Journal of Network and Systems Management, 19(3), 305–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Liao, J., Welsch, H., & Stoica, M. (2003). Organizational absorptive capacity and responsiveness: an empirical investigation of growth-oriented SMEs. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 28(1), 63–85.Google Scholar
  83. Low, C., Chen, Y., & Wu, M. (2011). Understanding the determinants of cloud computing adoption. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 111(7), 1006–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ludwig, S. (2012). An ugly duckling no more: why platform-as-a-service is poised for huge growth. VentureBeat.com.Google Scholar
  85. Ma, D., & Kauffman, J. R. (2014). Competition between software-as-a-service vendors. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 61(4), 717–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mani, D., Barua, A., & Whinston, A. B. (2006). Successfully governing business process outsourcing relationships. MIS Quarterly, 5(1), 15–29.Google Scholar
  87. Manyika, J., Chui, M., Bughin, J., Dobbs, R., Bisson, P., & Marrs, A. (2013). Disruptive technology: advances that will transform life, business, and the global economy. New York: McKinsey Global Institute.Google Scholar
  88. Markus, M. L. (1997). The qualitative difference in information systems research and practice. In A.S. Lee, J. Liebenau and J. DeGross (eds.), Information systems and qualitative research. Proceedings of the IFIP TC8 WG 8.2 International Conference on Information Systems and Qualitative Research, May 31-June 3, 1997, Philadelphia, PA, 11–27.Google Scholar
  89. Marston, S., Li, Z., Bandyopadhyay, S., & Ghalasi, A. (2011). Cloud computing: the business perspective. Decision Support Systems, 51(1), 176–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Merrill, T., & Kang, T. (2014). Cloud computing: is your organization weighing both benefits and risks? New York: ACE Group USA.Google Scholar
  91. Messerschmidt, C. M., & Hinz, O. (2013). Explaining the adoption of grid computing: an integrated institutional theory and organizational capability approach. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 22(2), 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Miles, R., & Snow, C. (1978). Org. strategy, structure, and process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  93. Miller, M. J. (2014) Cloud means lower price and more flexibility, or does it? PC Magazine. Google Scholar
  94. Misra, S. C., & Mondal, A. (2011). Identification of a company’s suitability for the adoption of cloud computing and modelling its corresponding return on investment. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 53(3), 504–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Muth, J. F. (1961). Rational expectations and the theory of price movements. Econometrica, 29(3), 315–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2009). The NIST definition of cloud computing: recommendations of the Natl. Inst. of Standards and Tech. SP 800–145, Gaithersburg, MD.Google Scholar
  97. Navisite. (2014). ASOS: NaviSite case study. Newark, DE.Google Scholar
  98. Nørreklit, H. (2000). The balance on the balanced scorecard: a critical analysis of some of its assumptions. Management Accounting Research, 11(1), 65–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nucleus Research. (2013). Benefit case study: Salesforce, Social.com, Kixeye. Doc. 108, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  100. Oh, W., Gallivan, M., & Kim, J. W. (2006). The market’s perception of the transactional risks of information technology outsourcing announcements. Journal of Management Information Systems, 22(4), 271–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Oshri, I., Kotlarsky, J., & Willcocks, L. P. (2010). The handbook of global outsourcing and offshoring (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  102. Panettieri, J. (2013) Top 100 cloud service providers list 2013: ranked 10 to 1. Talkin’Cloud.com.Google Scholar
  103. Pauley, W. A. (2010). Cloud provider transparency: an empirical evaluation. IEEE Security and Privacy, 8(6), 32–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Personal Data Protection Commission. (2012). Personal Data Protection Act, Singapore.Google Scholar
  105. Pitt, L. F., Watson, R., & Kavan, C. B. (1995). Service quality: a measure of information systems effectiveness. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), 173–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Poppo, L., & Zenger, T. (2002). Do formal contracts and relational governance function as substitutes or complements? Strategic Management Journal, 23(8), 707–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Qu, W. G., Pinsonneault, A., & Oh, W. (2011). Influence of industry characteristics on information technology outsourcing. Journal of Management Information Systems, 27(4), 99–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Recker, J. (2013). Scientific research in information systems. Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Repschlaeger, J., Erek, K., & Zarnekow, R. (2013). Cloud computing adoption: an empirical study of customer preferences among start-up companies. Electronic Markets , 23(2), 115–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rimal, B. P., Jukan, A., Katsaros, D., & Goeleven, Y. (2011). Architectural requirements for cloud computing: an enterprise cloud approach. Journal of Grid Computing , 9(1), 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rodriguez, T. (2012). The importance of network effects for cloud computing. Enterp. Cloud.Google Scholar
  112. Ross, P., & Blumenstein, M. (2013). Cloud computing: the nexus of strategy and technology. The Journal of Business Strategy, 34(4), 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rouse, M. (2014a). Software as a service (SaaS). Newton: TechTarget.Google Scholar
  114. Rouse, M. (2014b). Infrastructure as a service (IaaS). Newton: TechTarget.Google Scholar
  115. Rouse, M. (2014c). Platform as a service (PaaS). Newton: TechTarget.Google Scholar
  116. Roy, S. (2014). Business process as a service: not every service line fits the bill. Research brief. Stamford: Information Services Group.Google Scholar
  117. Salesforce.com. (2013). Salesforce.com announces JetBlue transforms social marketing with Salesforce Marketing Cloud, realizes 140 % return on investment. San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  118. SAP News. (2014). New survey findings from SAP and Ovum reveal high cloud adoption in the financial services industry. London, UK.Google Scholar
  119. Seagate. (2015). Cloud computing: answering the need for storage best practices. Cupertino, CA.Google Scholar
  120. Silk, S. (1998). Automating the balanced scorecard. Management Accounting, 79(11), 38–44.Google Scholar
  121. Srinivasan, R., Lilien, G. L., & Rangaswamy, A. (2002). Technological opportunism and radical technology adoption: an application to e-business. Journal of Marketing, 66(3), 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Stern, J. M., Stewart, G. B., & Chew, D. H. (1996). EVA: an integrated financial management system. European Financial Management, 2(2), 223–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sutherland, S., & Chetty, G. (2014). Migration to cloud computing: a sample survey. International Journal of Information Process and Management, 5(1), 50–61.Google Scholar
  124. Teo, H. H., Oh, L. B., Liu, C., & Wei, K. K. (2003). An empirical study of the effect of interactivity on web user attitude. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 58(3), 281–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. The Open Group (2014). Cloud computing for business: establishing your cloud vision. San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  126. Tornatzky, L. G., & Klein, K. J. (1982). Innovation characteristics and innovation adoption-implementation: a meta-analysis of findings. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 29(1), 28–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tripsas, M. (1998). Unraveling the process of creative destruction: complementary assets and incumbent survival in the typesetter industry. Strategic Management Journal, 18(SI), 119–42.Google Scholar
  128. Truong, H., & Dustdar, S. (2010). Composable cost estimation and monitoring for computational applications in cloud computing environments. Procedia Computer Science International Conference on Computational Science , 1(1), 2175–2184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Twentyone, J. (2008). Case studies: SaaS in action – Dixons Store Group International. ComputerWeekly.com.Google Scholar
  130. Venters, W., & Whitley, E. A. (2012). A critical review of cloud computing: researching desires and realities. Journal of Information Technology, 27(3), 179–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Vouk, M. A. (2008). Cloud computing: issues, research and implementations. Journal of Computing and Information Technology, 16(4), 235–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Walker, O. C., Boyd, H. W., Mullins, J., & Larrèchè, J. C. (2003). Marketing strategy: Planning and implementation (4th ed.). Homewood: Irwin-McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  133. Wipro. (2014). Optimize your finance and accounting process with BPaaS. Bangalore, India.Google Scholar
  134. Wright, C. (2004). Top three potential risks with outsourcing information systems. Information Systems Control Journal, 5, 1–2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Information Management, University of St. Gallen 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Information SystemsSingapore Management UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations