Operating in a global market provides challenges for managers concerned with information privacy. This work builds on a branch of research that has evolved to examine the relationship between culture and attitudes to information privacy. Our approach is unique in that our dependent variable is a count variable designed to measure the rate of uptake of privacy laws. It is a departure from studying cultural variables at the individual level. We also identify the cultural impact of legislation at the national level. Previous models generally use a relatively crude division of legislative codes. By contrast, this work examines the impact of culture on baskets of privacy elements drawn from the EU directive. These attributes are candidates for codification in law, but are taken up at varying rates. A key originality and challenge of the work is the use of the GLOBE variables for culture. Results suggest that group collectivism, power distance, assertiveness and uncertainty avoidance are the most powerful cultural predictors of the level of privacy legislation provision.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bansal, G., Zahedi, F., & Gefen, D. (2010). The impact of personal dispositions on information sensitivity, privacy concern and trust in disclosing health information online. Decision Support Systems, 49(2), 138–150.
Belanger, F., & Crossler, R. E. (2011). Privacy in the digital age: a review of information privacy research in information systems. MIS Quarterly, 35(4), 1017–1041.
Bellman, S., Lohse, G. L., & Johnson, E. J. (1999). Predictors of online buying behavior. Communications of the ACM, 42(12), 32–38.
Bellman, S., Johnson, E. J., & Lohse, G. L. (2001). To opt-in or opt-out? It depends on the question. Communications of the ACM, 44(2), 25–27.
Bellman, S., Johnson, E. J., Kobrin, S. J., & Lohse, G. L. (2004). International differences in information privacy concern: implications for the globalization of electronic commerce. Advances in Consumer Research, 31, 362–363.
Bennett, C. J., & Raab, C. D. (2003). The governance of privacy: Policy instruments in global perspective. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Bennett, C. J., & Raab, C. D. (2006). The governance of privacy: Policy instruments in global perspective (2nd and updated ed.). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Brewer, P., & Venaik, S. (2011). Individualism-collectivism in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(3), 436–445.
Brewer, P., & Venaik, S. (2012). On the misuse of national culture dimensions. International Marketing Review, 29(6), 673–683.
Bygrave, L. A. (2004). Privacy protection in a global context–a comparative overview. Scandinavian Studies in Law, 47, 319–348.
Cameron, A., & Trivedi, P. K. (1998). Regression analysis of count data. New York: Cambridge Press.
Cameron, A. C., & Trivedi, P. K. (2009). Microeconometrics using stata. Texas: Stata Press.
Cannataci, J. A. (2009). Privacy, technology law and religions across cultures. Journal of Information Law and Technology, 1(1).
Cao, J., & Everard, A. (2007). Influence of culture on attitude towards instant messaging: Balance between awareness and privacy. In J. Jacko (Ed.), Human-computer interaction. Interaction platforms and techniques, Vol. 4551 (pp. 236–240). Heidelberg: Springer Berlin.
Castaneda, J. A., & Montoro, F. J. (2007). The effect of internet general privacy concern on customer behavior. Electronic Commerce Research, 7(2), 117–141.
Clarke, R. (1999). Introduction to dataveillance and information privacy, and definitions of terms. Retrieved from http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/DV/Intro.html.
De Hert, P. (2012). The proposed data protection regulation replacing Directive 95/46/EC: a sound system for the protection of individuals. Computer Law and Security, 28(2), 130–142.
Dinev, T., & Hart, P. (2004). Internet privacy concerns and their antecedents - measurement validity and a regression model. Behaviour and Information Technology, 23(6), 413–422.
Dinev, T., & Hart, P. (2006). An extended privacy calculus model for e-Commerce transactions. Information Systems Research, 17(1), 61–80.
Dinev, T., Bellotto, M., Hart, P., Russo, V., & Serra, I. (2006). Internet users’ privacy concerns and beliefs about government surveillance: an exploratory study of differences between Italy and the United States. Journal of Global Information Management (JGIM), 14(4), 57–93.
Dinev, T., Hart, P., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Internet privacy concerns and beliefs about government surveillance - an empirical investigation. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 17(3), 214–233.
Dinev, T., Goo, J., Hu, Q., & Nam, K. (2009). User behaviour towards protective information technologies: the role of national cultural differences. Information Systems Journal, 19(4), 391–412.
Dlodlo, N. (2011, April). Legal, privacy, security, access and regulatory issues in cloud computing. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Management & Evaluation (pp. 161–168).
Earp, J. B., Anton, A. I., Aiman-Smith, L., & Stufflebeam, W. H. (2005). Examining Internet privacy policies within the context of user privacy values. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 52(2), 227–237.
Ess, C. (2005). Lost in translation: intercultural dialogues on privacy and information ethics (Introduction to special issue on privacy and data privacy protection in Asia). Ethics and Information Technology, 7(1), 1–6.
EU. (1995). EU directive on personal data protection enters into effect. EU directive on personal data protection enters into effect, 2014(20/02/2014).
Fernandez, D. R., Carlson, D. S., Stepina, L. P., & Nicholson, J. D. (1997). Hofstede’s country classification 25 years later. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137(1), 43–54.
Galpottage, P. A., & Norris, A. C. (2005). Patient consent principles and guidelines for e-Consent: a New Zealand perspective. Health Informatics Journal, 11(1), 5–18.
Greene, W. H. (2008). Econometric analysis. Upper Saddle River: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Greenleaf, G. (2012). Global data privacy laws: 89 countries, and accelerating. Privacy Laws & Business International Report, Issue 115, Special Supplement, February 2012 Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 98/2012.
Greenleaf, G. (2013). Global data privacy laws 2013: 99 countries and counting. Privacy Laws & Business International Report, Issue 123, June 2013, 10–13 UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2013–58.
Gregor, S. (2006). The nature of theory in information systems. MIS Quarterly, 30(3), 611–642.
Hann, I.-H., Hui, K.-L., Lee, S.-Y. T., & Png, I. P. (2007). Overcoming online information privacy concerns: an information-processing theory approach. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24(2), 13–42.
Hofstede. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Sage Publications, Inc.
Hofstede (1991). Cultures and organizations. Berkshire: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, 2nd edition. Sage Publications, Inc.
House, R., Javidan, M., & Dorfman, P. (2002a). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business, 37(1), 3–10.
House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P., & Dorfman, P. (2002b). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business, 37(1), 3–10.
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks:Sage.
Hui, K.-L., Teo, H. H., & Lee, S.-Y. T. (2007). The value of privacy assurance: an exploratory field experiment. MIS Quarterly, 31(1), 19–33.
Javidan, M., House, R., Dorfman, P., Hanges, P., & de Luque, S. (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring cultures and their consequences: a comparative review of GLOBE’s and Hofstede’s approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6).
Kennedy, P. (2001). A guide to econometrics. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Kluckhohn, F.R., & Strodtbeck, F.L. (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
Kobrin, S. J. (2004). Safe harbours are hard to find: the trans-atlantic data privacy dispute, territorial jurisdiction and global governance. Review of International Studies, 30(1), 111–131.
Kolen, M. J., & Brennan, R. L. (2014). Test equating, scaling, and linking: Methods and practices. New York: Springer.
Kuo, F.-Y., Lin, C. S., & Hsu, M.-H. (2007). Assessing gender differences in computer professionals self-regulatory efficacy concerning information privacy practices. Journal of Business Ethics, 73(2), 145–160.
Langenderfer, J., Cook, D. L. (2004). Oh, what a tangled web we weave: the state of privacy protection in the information economy and recommendations for governance, Journal of Business Research, 57(7), 734–747
Lowry, P. B., Zhang, D., Zhou, L., & Fu, X. (2010). Effects of culture, social presence, and group composition on trust in technology supported decision making groups. Information Systems Journal, 20(3), 297–315.
Malhotra, N. K., Kim, S. S., & Agarwal, J. (2004). Internet Users’ Information Privacy Concerns (IUIPC): the construct, the scale, and a causal model. Information Systems Research, 15(4), 336–355.
Marshall, G. (2013). Google Glass: Say goodbye to your privacy. techradar.com. Retrieved April 2015.
Martinsons, M., & Davison, R. (2003). IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 50(1), 3–7.
Mennecke, B., Xu, H., Tan, C. H., Smith, J., Shroff, M., Crompton, M., & George, J. (2014). Privacy in the Age of Big Data: The Challenges and Opportunities for Privacy Research. Paper presented at The International Conference on Information Systems: Building a Better World through Information Systems, Auckland December 2014: AIS.
Milberg, S., Burke, S., Smith, J., & Kallman, E. (1995). Values, personal information, privacy and regulatory approaches. Communications of the ACM, 38(12), 65–74.
Milberg, S. J., Smith, H. J., & Burke, S. J. (2000). Information privacy: corporate management and national regulation. Organization Science, 11(1), 35–57.
Myers, M. D., & Tan, F. B. (2003). Beyond models of national culture in information systems research. Advanced Topics in Global Information Management, 2, 14–29.
Newell, P. B. (1995). Perspectives on privacy. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(2), 87–104.
Park, Y. J. (2008). Privacy regime, culture and user practices in the cyber-marketplace. Info, 10(2), 57–74.
Poindexter, J. C., Earp, J. B., & Baumer, D. L. (2006). An experimental economics approach toward quantifying online privacy choices. Information Systems Frontiers, 8(5), 363–374.
Poullet, Y. (2006). EU data protection policy. The Directive 95/46/EC: ten years after. Computer Law and Security Review, 22(3), 206–217.
Reay, I., Beatty, P., Dick, S., & Miller, J. (2013). Privacy policies and national culture on the internet. Information Systems Frontiers, 15(2), 279–292.
Reidenberg, J. R. (2005). Technology and internet jurisdiction. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1951–1974.
Robbins, S. S., & Stylianou, A. C. (2003). Global corporate web sites: an empirical investigation of content and design. Information and Management, 40(3), 205–212.
Rose, E. A. (2006). An examination of the concern for information privacy in the New Zealand regulatory context. Information and Management, 43(3), 322–335.
San Martin, S., & Jimenez, N. H. (2011). Online buying perceptions in Spain: can gender make a difference? Electronic Markets, 21(4), 267–281.
Shah, J. R., White, G. L., & Cook, J. R. (2007). Privacy protection overseas as perceived by USA-based IT professionals. Journal of Global Information Management (JGIM), 15(1), 68–81.
Skinner, G., Han, S., & Chang, E. (2006). An information privacy taxonomy for collaborative environments. Information Management and Computer Security, 14(4), 382–394.
Smith, H. J., Milberg, S. J., & Burke, S. J. (1996). Information privacy: measuring individuals’ concerns about organizational practices. MIS Quarterly, 20(2), 167–196.
Smith, H. J., Dinev, T., & Xu, H. (2011). Information privacy research: an interdisciplinary review. MIS Quarterly, 35(4), 989–1016.
Solove, D. J. (2006). A taxonomy of privacy. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 477–564.
Steinwachs, K. (1999). Information and culture-the impact of national culture on information processes. Journal of Information Science, 25(3), 193–204.
Sullivan, B. (2006). ‘La difference’ is stark in EU, US privacy laws. Privacy Lost on msnbc. com, 19. http://www.nbcnews.com/id/15221111/ns/technology\_and\_science-privacy\_lost/t/la-difference-stark-eu-us-privacy-laws/\#.UwWZMxAzmls.
Turner, E. C., & Dasgupta, S. (2003). Privacy on the web: an examination of user concerns, technology, and implications for business organizations and individuals. Information Systems Management, 20(1), 8–18.
US Dept of Health Welfare, U. S. (1973). Records computers and the rights of citizens.
Van Slyke, C., Shim, J. T., Johnson, R., & Jiang, J. (2006). Concern for information privacy and online consumer purchasing. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 7(6).
Venaik, S., & Brewer, P. (2010). Avoiding uncertainty in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(8), 1294–1315.
Venaik, S., & Brewer, P. (2013). Critical issues in the Hofstede and GLOBE national culture models. International Marketing Review, 30(5), 469–482.
Whitman, J. Q. (2004). The two western cultures of privacy: dignity versus liberty. Yale Law Journal, 1151-1221.
Wu, M. (2006). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions 30 years later: a study of Taiwan and the United States. Intercultural Communication Studies, 15(1), 33.
Yao, M. Z., Rice, R. E., & Wallis, K. (2007). Predicting user concerns about online privacy. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(5), 710–722.
Responsible Editor: Stefan Klein
About this article
Cite this article
- National culture
- Information privacy
- GLOBE Variables