Unlike previous research which adopts simultaneous measures to examine customers’ satisfaction with the entire online shopping experience, this study examines two important stages of online buying behavior: ordering and fulfillment. The explicit consideration of the two stages acknowledges the fact that in an online environment, the two stages are distinct and there is a delay between the time a customer makes an order and the time he receives delivery of the merchandise. Examined are the antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction in different stages of the online buying process based on the expectation–confirmation model (ECM). Results indicate that the customers’ satisfaction with the ordering process and the fulfillment process, and the perceived usefulness of the website contribute significantly to their intention to continue using a business-to-consumer (B2C) website. It is also shown that the customers’ perceived usefulness affects their satisfaction only with the ordering process but not with the fulfillment process. Implications and limitations are discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process, 50(2), 179–211.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychol Bull, 103(3), 411–423.
Anderson, E. W., & Sullivan, M. W. (1993). The antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction for firms. Mark Sci, 12(2), 125–143.
Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: findings from Sweden. J Mark, 58(3), 53–66.
Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. J Mark Res, 14, 396–402.
Bhattacherjee, A. (2001a). An empirical analysis of the antecedents of electronic commerce service continuance. Decis Support Syst, 32(2), 201–214.
Bhattacherjee, A. (2001b). Understanding information systems continuance: an expectation–confirmation model. MIS Q, 25(3), 351–370.
Bhattacherjee, A., & Premkumar, G. (2004). Understanding changes in belief and attitude toward information technology usage: a theoretical model and longitudinal test. MIS Q, 28(2), 229–254.
Bridges, E., & Florsheim, R. (2008). Hedonic and utilitarian shopping goals: the online experience. J Bus Res, 61(4), 309–314.
Cao, Y., Gruca, T. S., & Klemz, B. R. (2003). Internet pricing, price satisfaction, and customer satisfaction. Int J Electron Commer, 8(2), 31–50.
Chen, L.-D., Gillenson, M. L., & Sherrell, D. L. (2002). Enticing online consumers: an extended technology acceptance perspective. Inf Manage, 39(8), 705–719.
Churchill, G. A., & Surprenant, C. (1982). An investigation into the determinants of customer satisfaction. J Mark Res, 19(4), 491–504.
Couper, M. P. (2000). Web surveys: a review of issues and approaches. Public Opin Q, 64(4), 464–481.
Cronin, J. J., & Taylor, S. A. (1992). Measuring service quality: a reexamination and extension. J Mark, 56(3), 55–68.
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q, 13(3), 319–340.
Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Manag Sci, 35(8), 982–1003.
DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (2003). The DeLone and McLean model of information systems success: a 10-year update. J Manag Inf Syst, 19(4), 9–30.
eMarketer. (2009). Retail e-commerce forecast: cautious optimism. Retrieved January 19, 2010, from http://www.emarketer.com/Reports/All/Emarketer_2000565.aspx.
Esper, T. L., Jensen, T. D., Turnipseed, F. L., & Burton, S. (2003). The last mile: an examination of effects of online retail delivery strategies on consumers. J Bus Logist, 24(2), 177–203.
Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading: Addison-Wesley.
Garbarino, E., & Johnson, M. S. (1999). The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships. J Mark, 63, 70–87.
Gefen, D. (2003). TAM or just plain habit: a look at experienced online shoppers. J End User Comput, 15(3), 1–13.
Gefen, D., Straub, D. W., & Boudreau, M. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: guidelines for research practice. Commun Assoc Inf Syst, 4(7), 1–70.
Gefen, D., Karahanna, E., & Straub, D. W. (2003). Trust and TAM in online shopping: an integrated model. MIS Q, 27(1), 51–90.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Hong, S.-J., Thong, J. Y. L., & Tam, K. Y. (2006). Understanding continued information technology usage behavior: a comparison of three models in the context of mobile internet. Decis Support Syst, 42, 1819–1834.
Hoyer, W. D., Herrmann, A., & Huber, F. (2002). When buyers also sell: the implications of pricing policies for customer satisfaction. Psychol Mark, 19(4), 329–355.
Hsieh, J. J. P.-A., & Wang, W. (2007). Explaining employees’ extended use of complex information systems. Eur J Inf Syst, 16(3), 216–227.
Hsu, M.-H., Yen, C.-H., Chiu, C.-M., & Chang, C.-M. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of continued online shopping behavior: an extension of the theory of planned behavior. Int J Hum Comput Stud, 64, 889–904.
Kang, Y. S., Hong, S., & Lee, H. (2009). Exploring continued online service usage behavior: the roles of self-image congruity and regret. Comput Hum Behav, 25(1), 111–122.
Karahanna, E., Straub, D. W., & Chervany, N. L. (1999). Information technology adoption across time: a cross-sectional comparison of pre-adoption and post-adoption beliefs. MIS Q, 23(2), 183–213.
Lee, H. L., & Whang, S. (2001). Winning the last mile of e-commerce. MIT Sloan Manage Rev, 42(4), 54–62.
Lemmink, J., Ruyter, K. D., & Wetzels, M. (1998). The role of value in the delivery process of hospitality services. J Econ Psychol, 19(2), 159–177.
Liao, C., Palvia, P., & Lin, H.-N. (2006). The roles of habit and web site quality in e-commerce. Int J Inf Manage, 26(6), 469–483.
Liao, C., Chen, J.-L., & Yen, D. C. (2007). Theory of planning behavior (TPB) and customer satisfaction in the continued use of e-service: an integrated model. Comput Hum Behav, 23, 2804–2822.
Limayem, M., & Cheung, C. M. K. (2008). Understanding information systems continuance: the case of internet-based learning technologies. Inf Manage, 45(4), 227–232.
Limayem, M., Hirt, S. G., & Cheung, C. M. K. (2007). How habit limits the predictive power of intention: the case of information systems continuance. MIS Q, 31(4), 705–737.
Lin, C. S., Wu, S., & Tsai, R. J. (2005). Integrating perceived playfulness into expectation–confirmation model for web portal context. Inf Manage, 42(5), 683–693.
Madlberger, M., & Sester, A. (2005). The last mile in an electronic commerce business model—service expectations of Austrian online shoppers. Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Information Systems, Regensburg, Germany.
Mathieson, K. (1991). Predicting user intentions: comparing the technology acceptance model with the theory of planned behavior. Inf Syst Res, 2(3), 173–191.
Mckinney, V., Yoon, K., & Zahedi, F. M. (2002). The measurement of web-customer satisfaction: an expectation and disconfirmation approach. Inf Syst Res, 13(3), 296–315.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. J Mark Res, 17(4), 460–469.
Oliver, R. L. (1993). Cognitive, affective, and attribute bases of the satisfaction response. J Consum Res, 20(3), 418–430.
Patterson, P. G., Johnson, L. W., & Spreng, R. A. (1997). Modeling the determinants of customer satisfaction for business-to-business professional services. J Acad Mark Sci, 25(1), 4–17.
Pavlou, P. A. (2003). Consumer acceptance of electronic commerce: integrating trust and risk with the technology acceptance model. Int J Electron Commer, 7(3), 101–134.
Pavlou, P. A., & Fygenson, M. (2006). Understanding and predicting electronic commerce adoption: an extension of the theory of planned behavior. MIS Q, 30(1), 115–143.
Peters, J. E. (2000). Meeting the e-fulfillment challenge. Supply Chain Manag Rev, 4(5), 64–70.
Posselt, T., & Gerstner, E. (2005). Pre-sale vs. post-sale e-satisfaction: impact on repurchase intention and overall satisfaction. J Interact Market, 19(4), 35–47.
Pyke, D. F., Johnson, M. E., & Desmond, P. (2001). E-fulfillment: it’s harder than it looks. Supply Chain Manag Rev, 1(1), 26–32.
Reichheld, F. F., & Schefter, P. (2000). E-loyalty: your secret weapon on the web. Harvard Bus Rev, 78(4), 105–113.
Ricker, F. R., & Kalakota, R. (1999). Order fulfillment: the hidden key to e-commerce success. Supply Chain Manage Rev, 3(3), 60–70.
Shim, J. P., Shin, Y. B., & Nottingham, L. (2002). Retailer web site influence on customer shopping: an exploratory study on key factors of customer satisfaction. J Assoc Inf Syst, 3, 53–76.
Swaid, S. I., & Wigand, R. T. (2009). Measuring the quality of e-service: scale development and initial validation. J Electron Commer Res, 10(1), 13–28.
Szymanski, D. M., & Hise, R. T. (2000). E-satisfaction: an initial examination. J Retail, 76(3), 309–322.
Taylor, S., & Todd, P. A. (1995a). Assessing IT usage: the role of prior experience. MIS Q, 19(4), 561–570.
Taylor, S., & Todd, P. A. (1995b). Understanding information technology usage: a test of competing models. Inf Syst Res, 6(2), 144–176.
Thong, J. Y. L., Hong, S.-J., & Tam, K. Y. (2006). The effects of post-adoption beliefs on the expectation–confirmation model for information technology continuance. Int J Hum Comput Stud, 64, 799–810.
Tse, D. K., & Wilton, P. C. (1988). Models of consumer satisfaction formation: an extensive. J Mark Res, 25(2), 204–212.
Vatanasombut, B., Stylianou, A. C., & Igbaria, M. (2004). How to retain online customers. Commun ACM, 47(6), 64–70.
Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. MIS Q, 27(3), 425–478.
Xu, M., Ferrand, B., & Roberts, M. (2008). The last mile of e-commerce—unattended delivery from the consumers and eTailers’ perspectives. Int J Electron Mark Retail, 2(1), 20–38.
Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. J Mark, 60, 31–46.
Responsible editor: Hans-Dieter Zimmermann
List of items by construct
Confirmation with ordering process (CWOP)
The ease of use of the website (e.g. convenience and speed of ordering) was better than what I expected.
The breadth/depth of products offered by the website was better than what I expected.
The product information quality (e.g. information quantity, quality, and relevance) offered by the website was better than what I expected.
The website performance (e.g. layout, links, pictures, images, and speed) was better than what I expected.
Confirmation with fulfillment process (CWFP)
The on-time delivery (expected vs. actual delivery date) of products was better than what I expected.
The product representation (product description/depiction vs. what you received) was better than what I expected.
The customer support (e.g. status updates and complaint/question handling) offered by the website was better than what I expected.
The ability to effectively track orders was better than what I expected.
Perceived usefulness (PU)
Using the website improves my performance in information seeking and purchasing
Using the website enables me to seek and purchase faster
Using the website enhances my effectiveness in information seeking and purchasing
Using the website increases my productivity in information seeking and purchasing
Satisfaction with ordering process (SWOP)
How do you feel about your experience of using the website in the ordering stage of online buying process:
Very dissatisfied/Very satisfied
Very displeased/Very pleased
Very frustrated/Very contented
Absolutely terrible/Absolutely delighted
Satisfaction with fulfillment process (SWFP)
How do you feel about your experience of using the website in the fulfillment stage of online buying process:
Very dissatisfied/Very satisfied
Very displeased/Very pleased
Very frustrated/Very contented
Absolutely terrible/Absolutely delighted
Continuance intention (CI)
I intend to continue using the website in the future
I expect my use of the website to continue in the future
It is likely that I will continue to transact with the e-tailer in the near future
About this article
Cite this article
Liao, C., Palvia, P. & Lin, HN. Stage antecedents of consumer online buying behavior. Electron Markets 20, 53–65 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-010-0030-2
- Expectancy disconfirmation theory
- Expectation–confirmation model
- Perceived usefulness