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Table 3 Chemical composition of the composite objects of the Seuso Treasure. Ag, Cu, Au, Pb are given in wt%, Bi is given in ppm. N = measured using Niton Xl3t GOLDD+ hXRF; S = measured using SPECTRO xSORT Combi hXRF. The minimum–maximum values are given. The Au/Ag and Bi/Pb ratios were calculated for each measurement points and the minimum–maximum values are given as well

From: Non-destructive handheld XRF study of archaeological composite silver objects—the case study of the late Roman Seuso Treasure

  Instrument No. of analyses Ag Cu Au Pb Bi Au/Ag Bi/Pb
Amphora
Base N 8 93.7–94.9 3.3–3.8 1.0–1.2 0.6–0.9 1400–1900 0.011–0.013 0.21–0.24
S 4 94.0–94.8 3.0–3.6 0.9–1.0 0.6–0.9 1100–1400 0.010–0.011 0.16–0.18
Body N 54 96.1–98.0 0.5–1.9 0.6–1.2 0.4–1.5 0–500 0.006–0.013 0–0.08
S 27 96.2–97.7 1.1–1.8 0.5–0.8 0.6–1.0 0–200 0.005–0.008 0–0.03
Handle N 4 95.8–96.2 2.3–2.6 0.4–0.5 1.0–1.1 200–300 0.005 0.01–0.02
S 4 95.5–95.9 2.3–2.5 0.4–0.5 1.1 100–200 0.004–0.005 0.01–0.02
Stopper N 2 97.7–98.1 1.1–1.2 0.3–0.5 0.2 2000–2600 0.004–0.006 0.95–1.23
S 2 98.2–98.4 0.8 0.3 0.1–0.2 1500–1600 0.003 0.99–1.00
Animal Ewer
Body N 64 94.9–97.9 0.8–3.3 0.9–2.4 0.2–0.9 400–1000 0.009–0.025 0.09–0.40
S 31 94.2–97.9 0.6–2.2 0.8–1.9 0.1–0.9 100–700 0.008–0.020 0.06–0.25
Base N 11 96.4–98.3 0.5–1.7 0.5–1.6 0.2–0.3 500–900 0.005–0.017 0.26–0.34
S 4 95.9–97.0 1.3–1.6 0.9–1.0 0.2–0.3 400–500 0.010 0.16–0.21
Handle N 7 92.9–94.6 3.2–4.7 0.7–1.7 0.4–0.7 900–1100 0.008–0.018 0.15–0.23
S 4 94.0–94.5 3.4–4.1 0.8–1.1 0.4–0.5 600–900 0.009–0.011 0.16–0.17
Upper beaded rim N 5 93.7–95.4 2.4–4.0 1.0–1.1 0.3–0.5 700–1400 0.011–0.012 0.21–0.31
S 3 94.6–95.0 2.6–3.2 1.2–1.4 0.2–0.4 500–600 0.012–0.015 0.15–0.22
Lid N 10 90.5–96.7 1.0–7.3 0.4–1.4 0.3–0.9 300–1100 0.004–0.015 0.04–0.17
S 3 93.2–93.8 3.3–3.7 0.7–0.8 0.7 700–800 0.008–0.009 0.11
Dionysiac Ewer
Body N 61 96.6–98.0 1.1–1.8 0.4–1.2 0.1–0.3 1400–2400 0.004–0.013 0.54–1.64
S 14 96.4–97.9 1.3–1.6 0.3–0.5 0.1 1200–1700 0.003–0.005 1.13–2.21
Base N 8 97.2–97.8 1.3–1.8 0.4–0.5 0.1–0.2 1600–2000 0.004–0.005 0.86–1.46
S 7 97.5–97.9 1.2–1.5 0.3–0.4 0.1 1200–1300 0.004 0.87–2.28
Thumbpiece N 3 94.0–95.0 3.2–4.2 0.5–0.6 0.2–0.3 2800–3200 0.005–0.007 1.05–1.14
Handle N 6 93.2–95.6 2.7–4.3 0.5–0.7 0.2–1.1 2500–3200 0.005–0.007 0.29–1.20
S 2 91.2–94.7 3.8–4.1 0.4–0.5 0.2–0.5 2100–2200 0.004–0.006 0.44–1.26
Upper octagonal rim N 6 95.6–96.4 2.3–2.6 0.5–0.6 0.1–0.6 2800–3200 0.005–0.006 0.52–2.31
S 5 95.8–96.4 2.3–2.5 0.5–0.6 0.1–0.4 2100–2500 0.005–0.006 0.57–2.62
Geometric Ewer A
Body N 70 93.9–97.8 0.9–2.9 0.7–1.1 0.5–1.1 900–1400 0.008–0.012 0.10–0.19
S 30 96.3–97.9 0.9–1.6 0.7–0.9 0.4–0.7 500–1000 0.007–0.009 0.09–0.15
Base N 14 94.5–97.1 1.4–4.1 0.7–1.1 0.2–0.5 500–1100 0.008–0.011 0.16–0.25
S 9 94.3–96.2 1.1–3.7 0.8–1.1 0.1–0.6 100–700 0.008–0.011 0.04–0.14
Handle N 7 92.3–94.7 3.8–6.1 0.8 0.6–0.8 1000–1200 0.008–0.009 0.13–0.19
S 5 93.0–94.8 3.5–5.2 0.7–0.8 0.7–0.8 800–1000 0.007–0.009 0.10–0.14
Upper beaded rim N 4 93.0–95.2 3.7–5.8 0.8–0.9 0.3–0.6 500–900 0.008–0.010 0.17–0.21
S 4 91.6–93.0 4.5–6.5 0.7–1.0 0.2–0.6 400–700 0.008–0.010 0.11–0.23
Geometric Ewer B
Body N 62 95.2–97.1 1.6–3.2 0.8–1.1 0.2–0.4 600–1000 0.009–0.011 0.17–0.21
S 16 95.4–96.4 1.9–2.5 0.7–1.1 0.2–0.3 400–700 0.008–0.011 0.14–0.19
Base N 11 79.6–94.0 4.5–18.6 0.8–1.1 0.4–0.5 700–900 0.009–0.011 0.17–0.31
S 7 84.9–93.5 4.5–10.9 0.7–1.0 0.3–0.5 500–800 0.008–0.011 0.15–0.27
Handle N 11 92.4–94.6 3.7–5.9 0.7–0.9 0.6–0.8 800–1100 0.008–0.009 0.11–0.15
S 5 93.5–94.2 3.6–4.8 0.7–0.8 0.8 700–900 0.007–0.009 0.09–0.11
Upper beaded rim N 5 90.2–95.6 2.0–7.1 0.7–1.0 0.6–1.3 500–1100 0.008–0.010 0.04–0.17
S 2 89.6–95.5 1.4–4.6 0.8–1.0 0.6–0.9 0–400 0.009–0.011 0.009–0.011
Thumbpiece N 3 93.5–94.8 3.4–4.6 0.8–0.9 0.7–0.8 1000–1200 0.008–0.009 0–0.07
Hippolytus Ewer
Body N 32 94.4–96.8 1.8–4.1 0.6–1.0 0.4–0.6 900–1500 0.007–0.011 0.21–0.28
S 15 96.2–96.8 1.6–2.1 0.6–0.8 0.4–0.5 700–1000 0.007–0.008 0.16–0.23
Base N 15 95.7–98.4 0.8–2.9 0.5–1.0 0.2–0.4 700–2600 0.005–0.010 0.19–1.09
S 8 94.3–97.5 1.3–2.8 0.5–1.0 0.1–0.4 500–1200 0.005–0.010 0.16–0.98
Lid N 8 91.4–95.1 3.6–6.9 0.6–1.0 0.5–0.6 500–900 0.006–0.010 0.09–0.16
S 4 92.2–94.2 3.4–6.2 0.5–0.6 0.4–0.6 400–600 0.006–0.007 0.08–0.11
Handle N 9 93.9–97.1 1.6–5.0 0.6–1.1 0.3–1.1 700–2000 0.007–0.011 0.11–0.56
S 2 94.8–96.2 2.3–3.4 0.8–0.9 0.3–0.4 400–1300 0.009 0.12–0.40
Upper beaded rim N 8 94.0–97.5 1.5–3.2 0.5–0.9 0.3–1.4 1500–2300 0.005–0.010 0.16–0.62
S 4 95.2–97.0 1.7–3.2 0.5 0.2–0.6 1400–1700 0.005–0.006 0.30–0.72
Hippolytus Situla A
Handle N 9 95.6–97.2 1.8–2.7 0.6–0.9 0.4–0.7 400–900 0.007–0.009 0.10–0.16
S 4 96.6–97.1 1.8–2.0 0.6 0.2–0.5 200–500 0.006–0.007 0.06–0.10
Feet N 8 95.4–97.6 0.8–2.6 0.9–1.1 0.3–0.8 400–1100 0.010–0.011 0.08–0.29
S 2 95.2–96.2 2.1–2.6 0.8–0.9 0.4–0.7 600–700 0.008–0.010 0.10–0.14
Body N 32 96.2–98.2 0.6–2.8 0.5–0.9 0.1–0.3 200–900 0.005–0.010 0.07–1.47
S 21 95.7–97.2 2.1–2.6 0.4–0.6 0.1–0.2 0–200 0.005–0.006 0–0.12
Upper beaded rim N 5 98.9–99.2 0.4–0.6 0.3–0.4 0–0.1 0–1400 0.003–0.004 0–3.20
S 4 95.3–99.0 0.3–0.5 0.3 0–0.04 400–800 0.003 0–6.28
Hippolytus Situla B
Handle N 11 96.6–97.7 1.2–2.1 0.6–0.8 0.3–0.5 300–800 0.006–0.008 0.08–0.30
S 4 97.3 1.6–1.7 0.5–0.6 0.3 0–300 0.005–0.006 0–0.10
Feet N 8 94.6–97.3 1.1–2.9 0.7–1.1 0.2–1.3 700–1200 0.008–0.012 0.09–0.33
S 2 95.2–95.4 2.5–2.7 0.8 0.4–0.5 700 0.008–0.009 0.14–0.17
Body N 33 95.6–97.5 1.7–3.2 0.5–0.9 0.3–0.5 200–500 0.006–0.010 0.07–0.12
S 22 92.5–97.4 1.7–2.7 0.5–1.0 0.2–0.5 100–400 0.005–0.011 0.02–0. 11
Upper beaded rim N 8 98.6–99.3 0.1–0.8 0.3–0.5 0–0.4 500–2000 0.003–0.005 0.18–2.60
S 6 98.7–99.4 0.1–0.5 0.2–0.5 0–0.01 0–600 0.002–0.005 0–6.41
Toilet Casket
Lid N 55 94.8–96.6 2.0–3.7 0.6–1.2 0.3–0.5 600–1300 0.006–0.013 0.14–0.33
S 23 94.8–96.7 1.9–3.5 0.7–1.2 0.3–0.5 500–1000 0.007–0.013 0.13–0.22
Base N 49 94.9–97.5 1.2–3.6 0.8–1.2 0.2–0.5 400–900 0.009–0.013 0.10–0.20
S 24 95.0–96.9 1.0–3.4 0.8–1.0 0.2–0.5 100–500 0.009–0.011 0.03–0.11
Pierced disc N 12 93.4–93.8 4.3–4.7 0.8 0.7 1300–1500 0.009 0.19–0.21
S 6 91.8–94.1 3.9–4.5 0.7–0.8 0.6–0.8 1000–1200 0.008 0.14–0.16