Dogs and foxes in Early-Middle Bronze Age funerary structures in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula: human control of canid diet at the sites of Can Roqueta (Barcelona) and Minferri (Lleida)

Abstract

Findings of canid remains in graves at different sites in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula are evidence of a widespread funerary practice that proliferated between the end of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC, in particular, in the Early-Middle Bronze Age contexts. The discovery of four foxes and a large number of dogs at the sites of Can Roqueta (Barcelona) and Minferri (Lleida) respectively, stand out among the many examples of these types of grave goods. In this work, we have made an approximation of the relationship between humans and canids through the study of their diet by analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in bone collagen. These analyses were complemented by archaeozoological, anthropological and archaeobotanical studies. The comparison of human and animal diets comprised a total of 37 canids, 19 domestic ungulates and 64 humans. The results indicate that the diet of the dogs was similar to that of humans, although δ15N values of dogs in Can Roqueta and Minferri are, on the average, 1.4‰ and 1.1‰, respectively, lower than those of humans. The offset between canids and the herbivorous ungulates of each site is not up to the established minimum for a trophic level, which implies an input of C3 plants and human intervention in the feeding of dogs and some of the foxes. Some particular cases in Can Roqueta suggest a specific food preparation, richer in cereals, for larger dogs (probably devoted to carrying loads), and possibly for at least one of the foxes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  1. Agustí B, López JB, Alonso N (2005) Longevidad en un conjunto funerario prehistórico: Minferri (Juneda, les Garrigues, Catalunya). In: Cañellas A (ed) Nuevas perspectivas del diagnóstico diferencial en paleopatología, Actas del VII Congreso Nacional de Paleopatología (Maó-Menorca, 2-5 octubre 2003), Universitat de les Illes Balears, pp 472–478

  2. Albizuri S (2011a) La ofrenda animal durante el Bronce Inicial en Can Roqueta II (Sabadell, Vallès Occidental). Universitat de Girona, Arqueozoología del ritual funerario. PhD dissertation

    Google Scholar 

  3. Albizuri S (2011b) Animales sacrificados para el cortejo fúnebre durante el Bronce Inicial (2300-1300 cal BC). El asentamiento de Can Roqueta II (Sabadell, Barcelona). Quaderns de Prehistòria i Arqueologia de Castelló 29:7–26

    Google Scholar 

  4. Albizuri S, Alonso N, López Cachero FJ (2011a) Economia i canvi social a Catalunya durant l'edat del bronze i la primer edad del ferro. In: Valenzuela-Lamas S, Padrós N, Belarte MC, Sanmartí J (eds) Economia agropecuària i canvi social a partir de les restes bioarqueològiques. El primer mil·lenni aC a la Mediterrània occidental, V Reunió Internacional d’Arqueologia de Calafell (Abril 2009). Arqueo Mediterrània 12:11–36

  5. Albizuri S, Fernández M, Tomás X (2011b) Evidencias sobre el uso del perro en la carga durante el Bronce Inicial en la Península Ibérica: el caso de Can Roqueta II (Sabadell, Barcelona). Archaeofauna 20:139–155

  6. Albizuri S, Maroto J, Nadal J, Majó T, Sánchez Marco A, Carlús X, Rodríguez A, Palomo A (2015) Wild carnivore and wild bird deposits in an agro-pastoral community during the Bronze Age: Can Roqueta II (Northeast Iberian Peninsula). Munibe Antropologia-Arkeologia 66:163–184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Alonso N, Buxó i Capdevila R (1993) Resultados iniciales del estudio Arqueobotánico de semillas y frutos del yacimiento de Cova Punta Farisa (Fraga, Huesca). In: El complejo arqueológico de Punta Farisa (Fraga, Huesca). Estudios de la Antigüedad 6-7:49–56

    Google Scholar 

  8. Alonso N (1999) De la llavor a la farina. Els processos agrícoles protohistòrics a la Catalunya Occidental. Monographies d’Archéologie Méditerranéenne 4. C.N.R.S. éditions, Lattes

  9. Alonso N, López JB (2000) Minferri (Juneda, Garrigues): un nou tipus d’assentament a l’aire lliure a la plana occidental catalana durant la primera meitat del segon mil·lenni cal. BC Tribuna d’Arqueologia 1997-1998:279–306

    Google Scholar 

  10. Alonso N, Cantero FJ, Jornet R, López D, Montes E, Prats G, Valenzuela S (2014) Milling wheat and barley with rotary querns: the Berber Ouarten women (Dahmani, El kef, Tunisia). In: Selsing L (ed) Seen through a millstone. University of Stavanger, Bergen, Norway, Geology and archaeology of quarries and mills. Museum of Archaeology, pp 193–212

    Google Scholar 

  11. Alonso N, Junyent E, Lafuente A, López JB, Moya A, Tartera E, Vidal A (2006) Agricultura i poblament a la plana occidental catalana durant l’edat del bronze. Condicions de vida al món rural, Institut d’Estudis Ilerdencs, Lleida, pp 711–726

  12. Alonso N, Pérez G, Rovira N, López D (2016) Gathering and consumption of wild fruits in the east of the Iberian Peninsula from the 3rd to the 1st millennium BC. Quat Int 404:69–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Álvarez De Sotomayor JM (1824) Los Doce Libros de Agricultura que escribió en latín Lucio Junio Moderato Columela. Imprenta de Miguel de Burgos, Madrid

    Google Scholar 

  14. Al Qahtani SJ (2009) Atlas of tooth development and eruption. Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry. Queen Mary University of London, London

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ambrose SH (1990) Preparation and characterization of bone and tooth collagen for isotopic analysis. J Archaeol Sci 17:431–451

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Artigues PL, Bravo P, Hinojo E (2007) Excavacions arqueològiques a Can Gambús 2, Sabadell (Vallès Occ.). Tribuna d'Arqueologia 2006:111–140

    Google Scholar 

  17. Balsera R, Matas O, Roig J (2011) Els Pinetons, un assentament prehistòric i medieval a la plana del Vallès. Tribuna d’Arqueologia 2009:237–284

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bocherens H, Billiou D, Patou-Mathis M, Bonjean D, Otte M, Mariotti A (1997) Paleobiological implications of the isotopic signatures (13C, 15N) of fossil mammal collagen in Scladina cave (Sclayn, Belgium). Quat Res 48:370–380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Bocherens H, Drucker D (2003) Trophic level isotopic enrichments for carbon and nitrogen in collagen: case studies from recent and ancient terrestrial ecosystems. Int J Osteoarchaeol 13:46–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Bocherens H, Drucker D, Germonpré M et al (2015) Reconstruction of the Gravettian food-web at Předmostí I using multi-isotopic tracking (13C, 15N, 34S) of bone collagen. Quat Int 359-360:211–228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Bolós O (1979) Geografia fisica dels Països Catalans. Els sols i la vegetació dels Països Catalans. In: Riba O et al (eds) Geografia fisica dels Països Catalans. Ketres, Barcelona, pp 107–158

    Google Scholar 

  22. Boquer S, González JL, Mercadal O, Rodón T, Saenz L (1990) Les estructures del bronze antic-mitjà al jaciment arqueològic de Can Roqueta (Sabadell, Vallès Occidental). Arrahona 7:9–25

    Google Scholar 

  23. Boquer S, González JL, Mercadal O, Rodón T, Saenz L (1992) Un nou assentament del bronze- ferro al Vallès: Can Roqueta. Tribuna d’Arqueologia 1990-1991:41–51

    Google Scholar 

  24. Bordas A, Pou R, Parpal A, Martín A (1994) Excavacions arqueològiques 1991-1992 a la Bòbila Madurell-Mas Duran (Sant Quirze del Vallès, Vallès Occidental). Tribuna d'Arqueologia 1992-1993:31–47

    Google Scholar 

  25. Bosch A, Mercadal O, Tarrús J (1989) La cova sepulcral del neolític antic de l’Avellaner (Les Planes d’Hostoles, la Garrotxa). Tribuna d’Arqueologia 1988-89:15–28

    Google Scholar 

  26. Bouso M, Esteve X, Farré J, Feliu JM, Mestres J, Palomo A, Rodríguez A, Senabre MR (2004) Anàlisi comparatiu de dos assentaments del bronze inicial a la depressió prelitoral: Can Roqueta II (Sabadell-Valles Occiental) i Mas d'en Boixos- 1 (Pacs del Penedès-Alt Penedès). Cypsela 15:73–101

    Google Scholar 

  27. Bouso M, Esteve X, Farré J, Feliu JM, Mestres J, Palomo A, Rodríguez A, Senabre MR (2005) Can Roqueta II y Mas d’en Boixos-1, dos yacimientos del Bronce inicial situados en la depresión prelitoral catalana. In: Bicho N, Corchón MS (Coord) As idades do Bronce e do Ferro na Península Ibérica. Acta do IV Congreso de Arqueologia. Peninsular. 14-19 de Setembro, Faro, Universidade do Algarve, Promontoria Monográfica, pp 145–158

  28. Brea MB, Mazzieri P, Micheli R (2010) People, dogs and wild game: evidence of human-animal relations from Middle Neolithic burials and personal ornaments in northern Italy. Documenta Praehistorica XXXVII:125–145

  29. Brück J (1999) Ritual and rationality: some problems of interpretation in European archaeology. Eur J Archaeol 2(3):313–314

    Google Scholar 

  30. Bruzek J (2002) A method for visual determination of sex, using the human hip bone. Am J Phys Anthropol 117(2):157–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Buikstra, JI, Ubelaker DH (1994) Standards for data collection from human skeletal remains: Proceedings of a seminar at the field Museum of Natural History, Organized by Jonathan Haas, Arkansas Archeol Surv Res Series 44

  32. Cámara Serrano JA, Sánchez Susí R, Riquelme JA et al (2016) Culte aux ancêtres dans la période chalcolithique de la péninsule ibérique ? Le sacrifice d’animaux, la circulation des restes humains et la différence de traitement entre hommes et femmes dans les tombes du site archéologique à Marroquíes (Jaén, Espagne) trouvées dans les fouilles de la Tranche 3 du système du tramway. L’Anthropologie 120(2):145–174

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Cannon A, Schwarcz HP, Knyf M (1999) Marine based subsistence trends and the stable isotope analysis of dog bones from Namu, British Columbia. J Archaeol Sci 26:399–407

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Carlús X, Lara C, López Cachero X, Oliva M, Palomo A, Rodríguez A, Terrats N, Villena N (2002) El paraje arqueológico de Can Roqueta (Sabadell, Vallès Occidental): diacronia y tipología de las ocupaciones. XXVII Congreso Nacional de Arqueología (Huesca, 6 al 8 de Mayo del 2003). Bolskan 19:121–139

    Google Scholar 

  35. Carlús X, López Cachero X, Oliva M, Palomo A, Rodríguez A, Terrats N, Lara C, Villena N (2007) Cabanes, sitges i tombes. El paratge de Can Roqueta (Sabadell, Vallès Occidental) del 1300 al 500 aC. Quaderns d’Arqueologia 4, Museu d’Història de Sabadell. Sabadell

  36. Carlús X, López Cachero FJ, Terrats N, Oliva M, Palomo A, Rodríguez A (2008) Diacronia durant la prehistòria recent a Can Roqueta (Sabadell-Barberà del Vallès, Vallès Occidental) entre el VI i el I mil·lenni cal ANE. Cypsela 17:115–142

    Google Scholar 

  37. Catagnano V (2016) Aproximación morfométrica y paleogenética al estudio de la variabilidad de Canis l. familiaris en la Península Ibérica desde el neolítico hasta época romana y su contextualización en el ámbito del mediterráneo occidental. PhD dissertation, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

  38. Chevallier D (1987) L'Homme, le porc, l'abeille et le chien. La relation homme-animal dans le Haut-Diois. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie XXVI, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  39. Chisholm BS, Nelson DE, Schwarcz HP (2006) Stable carbon isotope ratios as a measure of marine versus terrestrial protein in ancient diets. Science 216:1131–1132

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Conlin E (2003) Los inicios del III milenio a.C. en Carmona. Las evidencias arqueológicas. Carel 1:83–143

    Google Scholar 

  41. Coppinger R, Schneider R (1995) Evolution of working dogs. In: Serpell K (ed) The domestic dog: its evolution, behaviour, and interactions with people. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 21–50

    Google Scholar 

  42. Daza A (2011) Los depósitos de perros. In Blasco C. Liesau C, Ríos P (eds) Yacimientos calcolíticos con campaniforme de la región de Madrid, Patrimonio Arqueológico 6, Madrid, pp 211–222

  43. DeNiro MJ (1985) Postmortem preservation and alteration of in vivo bone collagen isotope ratios in relation to palaeodietary reconstruction. Nature 317:806–809

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Driesch A von den (1976) a guide to the measurement of animal bones from archaeological sites. Peabody museum bulletin, 1, Harvard

  45. Equip Minferri (1997) Noves dades per a la caracterització dels assentaments a l’aire lliure durant la 1a meitat del II mil·leni cal. BC: primers resultats de les excavacions en el jaciment de Minferri (Juneda, Garrigues). Revista d’Arqueologia de Ponent 7:161–211

    Google Scholar 

  46. Ewersen, J, Ziegler S, Ramminger B, Schmölcke U (2018) Stable isotopic ratios from Mesolithic and Neolithic canids as an indicator of human economic and ritual activity. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 17:346–¬357

  47. Fazekas IG, Kosa F (1978) Forensic foetal osteology. Akadémiai Kiado, Budapest

    Google Scholar 

  48. Ferembach D, Schwidetzky I, Stloukal M (1979) Recommandations pour determiner l’âge et le sexe sur le squelette. Bull. et Mém. de la Soc. d’Anthrop. de Paris 6, XIII:7–45

  49. Ferrio JP, Alonso N, López JB, Araus JL, Voltas J (2006) Carbon isotope composition of fossil charcoal reveals aridity changes in the NW Mediterranean Basin. Glob Chang Biol 12:1–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Fischer A, Olsen J, Richards M, Heinemeier SÁE, Bennike P (2007) Coast-inland mobility and diet in the Danish Mesolithic and Neolithic: evidence from stable isotope values of humans and dogs. J Archaeol Sci 34:2125–2150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Fogel M, Tuross N, Owsley D (1989) Nitrogen isotope tracers of human lactation in modern and archaeological populations. Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook, pp:111–117

  52. Forcadell T, Villalbí M (1999) Cova Cervereta (Vinallop, Tortosa). Cavitat sepulcral del calcolític-bronze antic al curs inferior de l'Ebre Quaderns de Prehistòria i Arqueologia de Castelló 20:37–54

    Google Scholar 

  53. Fuller B, Fuller J, Harris D, Hedges R (2006) Detection of breastfeeding and weaning in modern human infants with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. Am J Phys Anthropol 129:279–293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Garvin HM, Passalacqua NV, Uhl NM, Gipson DR, Overbury RS, Cabo LL (2012) Development in forensic anthropology. Age at death estimation. In: Dirkmaat DC (ed) A companion to forensic anthropology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, First Ed.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Germonpré M, Sablin MV, Stevens RE, Hedges REM, Hofreiter M, Stiller M, Després VR (2009) Fossil dogs and wolves from Palaeolithic sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia: osteometry, ancient DNA and stable isotopes. J Archaeol Sci 36:473–490

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Gómez X (2000a) Noves dades sobre l’explotació de base animal durant la protohistória a la plana occidental catalana. Universitat de Lleida, Tesina de llicenciatura

    Google Scholar 

  57. Gómez X (2000b) Homes i animals al jaciment protohistóric de Minferri (Juneda, Catalunya). II Trobada d’Estudiosos de la Comarca de les Garrigues, Tarrés, pp 11–26

    Google Scholar 

  58. Gómez X (2003) El gos a Minferri (Juneda-Garrigues): Prehistòria del millor amic de l’home. Actes III Trobada d’Estudiosos de la Comarca les Garrigues, Cervià de les Garrigues, pp 219–232

  59. Goude G, Fontugne M (2016) Carbon and nitrogen isotopic variability in bone collagen during the Neolithic period: influence of environmental factors and diet. J Archaeol Sci 70(2016):117–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Guerrero L (1990) L’antropologia física. In: Llussà A et al. El jaciment del Bronze de Minferri (Juneda, les Garrigues), Quaderns d’Arqueologia del Grup de Recerques Arqueològiques de “La Femosa” 5, Artesa de Lleida, pp 45–54

  61. Guagnin M, Perri A, Petraglia MD (2018) Pre-Neolithic evidence for dog-assisted hunting strategies in Arabia. J Anthropol Archaeol 49:225–236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Guiry EJ (2012) Dog as analogs in human stable isotope based paleodietary reconstructions: a review and consideration for future use. J Archaeol Method Theory 19(3):351–376

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Guiry EJ, Grimes V (2013) Domestic dog (Canis familiaris) diets among coastal late archaic groups of northeastern North America: a case study for the canine surrogacy approach. J Anthropol Archaeol 32(4):732–745

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4(1)

  65. Harcourt RA (1974) The dog in prehistoric and early historic Britain. J Archaeol Sci 1:151–175

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Heaton THE (1987) The 15N/14N ratios of plants in South Africa and Namibia: relationship to climate and coastal/saline environments. Oecologia 74(2):236–246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Horard-Herbin MP (2000) Dog management and use in the late Iron Age. The evidence from the Gallic site of Levroux (France). In: Crockford SJ (ed) dogs through time: an archaeological perspective, BAR Int. Ser., 889, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 115–121

  68. Horard-Herbin MP, Tresset A, Vigne JD (2014) Domestication and uses of the dog in Western Europe from the Paleolithic to the Iron Age. Animal Frontiers 4(3):23–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Horwitz LK, Goring-Morris L (2004) Animals and ritual during the Levantine PPNB: a case study from the site of Kfar Hahoresh, Israel. Anthropozoologica 39(1):165–178

    Google Scholar 

  70. Isik G (2009) Yal. The traditional dog food in Anatolia. Choban chatter, the official publication of Anatolian shepherd dogs international 19(1)

  71. Kosa F (1989) Age estimation from the foetal skeleton. In: Iscan MY (ed) Age markers in the human skeleton. Charles C. Thomas Publ, Springfield, Illinois, pp 21–54

    Google Scholar 

  72. Koster JM, Tankersley KB (2012) Heterogeneity of hunting ability and nutritional status among domestic dogs in lowland Nicaragua. PNAS 109(8):E463–E470. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1112515109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Kuehn SR (2014) Prehistoric dog pathology in the American bottom: evidence from the Janey B. Goode site (11S1232), St. Clair County, Illinois. Illinois Archaeol 26:97–129

    Google Scholar 

  74. Kuhnle GGC, Joosen AMCP, Catherine J, Kneale CJ, O’Connell TC (2013) Carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios of urine and faeces as novel nutritional biomarkers of meat and fish intake. Eur J Nutr 52:389–395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-012-0328-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Latham KJ (2016) Working like dogs: a systematic evaluation of spinal pathologies as indicators of dog transport in the archaeological record. University of Alberta, PhD dissertation

    Google Scholar 

  76. Lawler D, Widga FC, Rubin DA, Reetz JA, Evans RH, Tangredi BP, Thomas RM, Martin TJ, Hildebolt C, Smith K, Leib D, Sackman JE, Avery JG, Smith GK (2016) Differential diagnosis of vertebral spinous process deviations in archaeological and modern domestic dogs. J Archaeol Sci 9:54–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.06.042

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Liesau C, Daza A, Llorente L, Morales A (2013) More questions than answers: the singular animal deposits from Camino de Las Yeseras (chalcolithic, Madrid, Spain). Anthropozoologica 48(2):277–286. https://doi.org/10.5252/az2013n2a6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. López JB (2000) L’evolució del poblament protohistòric a la plana occidental catalana: models d’ocupació del territori i urbanisme. Universitat de Lleida, PhD dissertation

    Google Scholar 

  79. López JB (2001) Minferri en el context de l’edat del bronze a la plana occidental catalana, a Grup d’Investigació Prehistòrica. In : Colors de terra. La vida i la mort en una aldea d’ara fa 4.000 anys. Minferri (Juneda), Quaderns de la Sala d’Arqueologia, 1, Institut d’Estudis Ilerdencs, Lleida, pp 13–40

  80. Losey RJ, Bazaliiskii VI, Garvie-Lok S, Germonpré M, Leonard JA, Allen AL, Katzenberg AM, Sablin MV (2011) Canids as persons: early Neolithic dog and wolf burials, Cis-Baikal, Siberia. J Anthropol Archaeol 30(2):174–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Losey RJ, Garvie-Lok S, Leonard JA et al (2013) Burying dogs in ancient cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices. Plos One 17 8(5):e63740. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Maher L, Stock J, Finney S, Heywood J, Miracle P, Banning E (2011) A unique human-fox burial from a pre-Natufian cemetery in the Levant (Jordan). PLoS One 6(1):e15815. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015815

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Mann HB, Whitney DR (1947) On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other. Ann Math Stat 18(1):50–60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Marín D (2018) Origen, tecnología y funcionalidad del utillaje lítico tallado durante la Edad del Bronce en el Nordeste de la Península Ibérica (2000–1300 cal ANE). Universitat de Lleida, PhD dissertation

    Google Scholar 

  85. Marín D, Gibaja JF, Alonso Martínez A, Ortega i Cobos D, Palomo A, Moya Garra A (2017) Chipped stone tools from the Early Bronze Age settlement of Minferri (2100-1650 cal. BC) (Lleida, Spain). Raw materials, technology and activities inferred. In: Brysbaert A, Gorgues A (eds) artisans versus nobility. Multiple identities of elites and “commoners” viewed through the lens of crafting from the chalcolithic to the Iron ages in Europe and the Mediterranean. Sidestone press, Leiden, pp 139–159

  86. Martí M, Pou R, Carlús X (1997) Excavacions arqueològiques a la Ronda Sud de Granollers, 1994. La necròpolis del Neolític Mitjà i les restes romanes del Camí de Can Grau (La Roca del Vallès, Vallès Oriental) i els jaciments de Cal Jardiner (Granollers, Vallès Oriental). Excavacions Arqueològiques a Catalunya 14. Barcelona

  87. Martín Cólliga A, Martín J, Villalba P, Juan-Tresserras J (2005) Ca l’Oliaire (Berga, Barcelona), un asentamiento neolítico en el umbral del IV milenio con residuos de sal y de productos lácteos. In: III Congreso del Neolítico de la Península Ibérica, pp. 175-185. Universidad de Cantabria. Santander

  88. Martín Colliga A, Blanch RM, Albizuri S, Alaminos A, Mercadal O, Vives E, Lázaro P, Bosch J, Colomer S, Miret J, Enrich R, Aliaga S (2017) El paraje de Bòbila Madurell (Sant Quirze del Vallès, Vallès Occidental, Barcelona). In: Gibaja JF, Subirà ME, Martín A, Mozota M, Roig J (eds) Mirando a la Muerte: Las prácticas funerarias durante el neolítico en el noreste peninsular. E-ditArx - Publicaciones Digitales

  89. Morey DF (2010) Dogs. Cambridge University Press, Domestication and the developement of a social bond

    Google Scholar 

  90. Morris J (2011) Investigating animal burials; ritual. Mundane and Beyond BAR British Series 535

  91. Moorrees CFA, Fanning EA, Hunt EE Jr (1963a) Formation and resorption of three deciduous teeth in children. Am J Phys Anthropol 21:205–213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Moorrees CFA, Fanning EA, Edward E, Hunt EE Jr (1963b) Age variation of formation stages for ten permanent teeth. J Dent Res 42(6):1490–1502

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Moya A, López JB, Bergadà MM, Alonso N, Escala Ò, Mateu M, Tartera E, Vidal A (in press) Hornos en fosa para la cocción cerámica en poblados del Neolítico final de la Catalunya occidental: Minferri y Cantorella. VI Congreso del Neolítico en la Península Ibérica (Granada, 22-26 junio 2016)

  94. Nieto A, Moya A, López JB, Agustí B (2014) Ofrenes o deixalles ? El cas dels bovins (Bos taurus) en context funerari del jaciment del bronze ple de Minferri (Lleida, Catalunya). Équidés de la Méditerranée antique. Rites et combats. Jeux et savoirs, Monographies d'Archéologie Méditerranéenne, Hors-série 6:53–112

    Google Scholar 

  95. Noe-Nygaard N (1988) 13C-values of dog bones reveal the nature of changes in man's food resources at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition, Denmark. Chem Geol: Isot Geosci sect 73(1):87–96

    Google Scholar 

  96. O’Connell TC, Kneale CJ, Tasevska N, Kuhnle GGC (2012) The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: a controlled dietary study. Am J Phys Anthropol 149:426–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Ollivier M, Tresset A, Bastian F, Lagoutte L, Axelsson E, Arendt ML, Bălăşescu A, Marshour M, Sablin MV, Salanova L, Vigne JD, Hitte C, Hänni C (2016) Amy2B copy number variation reveals starch diet adaptations in ancient European dogs. Royal Soc Open Sci 9 3(11):160449. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160449 eCollection 2016 Nov

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Onar V (2005) Estimating the body weight of dogs unearthed from the Van-Yoncatepe necropolis in eastern Anatolia. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 29:495–498

    Google Scholar 

  99. Onar V, Belli O (2005) Estimation of shoulder height from long bone measurements on dogs unearthed from the Van-Yoncatepe early Iron age necropolis in eastern Anatolia. Rev Med Vet 156(1):53–60

    Google Scholar 

  100. Onar V, Belli O, Owen PR (2005) Morphometric examination of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from the Van Yoncatepe necropolis in eastern Anatolia. Int J Morphol 23(3):253–260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Ovodov ND, Crockford SJ, Kuzmin YV, Higham TFG, Hodgins GWL, van der Plicht J (2011) A 33,000-year-old incipient dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: evidence of the earliest domestication disrupted by the last glacial maximum. PLoS One 6(7):e22821. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022821

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Palomo A, Rodríguez A (2002) Can Roqueta II (Sabadell, Vallès Occidental): un jaciment excepcional de l'edat del bronze. Pirineus i veïns al 3r mil·lenni aC. De la fin del neolític a l'edat del bronze entre l'Ebre i la Garona. XI Col·loqui Internacional d’Arqueologia de Puigcerdà, Puigcerdà

  103. Palomo A, Terrats N, Oliva M, Rodríguez A, Majó T (2016) El complex arqueològic de Can Roqueta: un poblat paradigmàtic del bronze inicial a la Depressió Prelitoral Catalana. Arraona 36:130–141

    Google Scholar 

  104. Pearson JA, Bogaard A, Charles M, Hillson SW, Larsen CS, Russell N, Twiss K (2015) Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis at Neolithic Çatalhöyük: evidence for human and animal diet and their relationship to households. J Archaeol Sci 57:69–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Pechenkina EA, Ambrose SH, Xiaolin MA, Benfer RA Jr (2005) Reconstructing northern Chinese Neolithic subsistence practices by isotopic analysis. J Archaeol Sci 32(8):1176–1189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Pereira J, García E (2002) Bellotas, el alimento de la edad de oro. Arqueoweb 4(2):1–31

    Google Scholar 

  107. Peters J, Schmidt K (2004) Animals in the symbolic world of PPN Göbekli Tepe (Turkey). Antropozoologica 39:179–218

    Google Scholar 

  108. Peterson N (2006) Hundar kring benen. En analys av belastning och storleksvariation hos hundarna I det Mesolitiska Skane. PhD dissertation, Lunds universitet, Lund, Swedish

  109. Perri A (2017) A typology of dog deposition in archaeological contexts. In Rowley-Conwy P Halstead P Serjeantson D (eds) economic Zooarchaeology: studies in hunting, herding and early agriculture. 1st ed., oxbow books, Ch.11, JSTOR, Oxford; Philadelphia www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1s4751q.16

  110. Piérard J (1967) Note d’anatomie appliquée, appréciation de l’âge du chien. Can Vet J 8(9):197–200

    Google Scholar 

  111. Pitulko V, Kasparov AK (2017) Archaeological dogs from the Early Holocene Zhokhov site in the eastern Siberian Arctic. J Archaeol Sci Rep 13:491–515

    Google Scholar 

  112. Prats G (2013) Aproximació tipològica i funcional de les estructures excavades al jaciment del bronze ple de Minferri (Juneda, les Garrigues): emmagatzematge i conservació a la Catalunya occidental. Revista d’Arqueologia de Ponent 23:89–126

    Google Scholar 

  113. Prats G (2017) L’emmagatzematge en sitja entre el Neolític i l’època ibèrica (del 5500 ANE al I ANE). Aproximació socioeconòmica a les comunitats del nord-est de la Península Ibèrica. Universitat de Lleida, PhD Dissertation

    Google Scholar 

  114. Rodríguez A, Palomo T, Majó T (2002) Les estructures funeràries de Can Roqueta II (Sabadell, Vallès Occidental). XII Col·loqui Internacional d’Arqueologia de Puigcerdà, Puigcerdà, pp 659-669

  115. Roig J, Coll JM (2016) El poblament prehistòric del paratge de Can Gambús-1: l’evolució dels assentaments agrícoles des del neolític final fins a l’edat del ferro (3000-500 cal. aC). Arraona 36:90–97

    Google Scholar 

  116. Rosillo R, Palomo A, Tarrús J et al (2012) Darreres troballes de prehistòria a l'Alt Empordà. Dos assentaments a l'aire lliure: La Serra de Mas Bonet (Vilafant) i Els Banys de la Mercè (Capmany). Tribuna d'Arqueologia 2010-2011:41–62

    Google Scholar 

  117. Ruiz C, Vázquez JM, Lomba J, Aviles A, Haber M, Drenes M, Gil Cano F (2014) El yacimiento calcolítico “Camino del Molino” (Caravaca de la Cruz, Murcia): una oportunidad excepcional para estudiarlos cánidos que poblaron el sureste español hace 4000 años. Primeros resultados Orígenes y Raíces 6:5–7

    Google Scholar 

  118. Russell N (2012) Hunting sacrifice at Neolithic Çatalhöyük. In: Porter AM, Schwartz GM (eds) Sacred killing: the archaeology of sacrifice in the ancient near east. Winona Lake, Indiana, Eisenbrauns, pp 79–95

    Google Scholar 

  119. Scheuer L, Black S (2000) Developmental juvenile osteology. Elsevier, London

    Google Scholar 

  120. Schwarcz HP, Schoeninger MJ (1991) Stable isotope analyses in human nutritional ecology. Am J Phys Anthropol 34(S13):283–321

    Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Schwarcz HP, Schoeninger MJ (2012) Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as tracers for palaeo-diet reconstruction. In: Baskaran M (ed) Handbook of environmental isotope geochemistry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 725–742

    Google Scholar 

  122. Szpak P, White CD, Longstaffe FJ, Millaire J-F, Vásquez Sánchez VF (2013) Carbon and nitrogen isotopic survey of northern peruvian plants: baselines for paleodietary and paleoecological studies. PLoS One 8. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053763

  123. Tankersley KB, Koster JM (2009) Sources of stable isotope variation in archaeological dog remains. North Am Archaeol 30(4):361–375

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Valera AC, Costa C (2013) Animal limbs in funerary contexts in southern Portugal and the question of segmentation. Anthropozoologica 48(2):263–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Valera AC, Nunes T, Costa C (2010) Enterramentos de canídeos no Neolítico: a fossa 5 de Corça 1 (Brinches, Serpa). Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património 5:7–17

    Google Scholar 

  126. Vila S (2018) L'explotació dels recursos vegetals a la plana occidental catalana durant la protohistòria a partir de l'anàlisi antracològica (III-I mil·lenni). Universitat de Lleida, PhD dissertation

    Google Scholar 

  127. Villalba MJ (1999) Las sepulturas neolíticas del complejo minero de Can Tintorer y el modelo social de la población minera. Revista d’arqueologia de Ponent 9:41–73

    Google Scholar 

  128. Warren DM (2004) Skeletal biology and paleopathology of domestic dogs from prehistoric Alabama, Illinois. Indiana University, Bloomington, Kentucky and Tennessee. PhD dissertation

    Google Scholar 

  129. Ward JH (1963) Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function. J Am Stat Assoc 58:236–244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Wilson GL (1924) The horse and the dog in Hidatsa culture. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History XV, II, American Museum of Natural History, New York, pp 125–311

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Our deepest gratitude goes to Mònica Oliva and Noemí Terrats, the directors of the excavation of Can Roqueta, for giving access to unpublished data on the structures of the sectors of Torre Romeu and Can Revella and Javier López Cachero of the University of Barcelona for the recent dating of CRII-591 of Can Roqueta in the framework of projects HAR2013-48010-P and HAR2017-87695-P (MINECO, Spain). We also thank Julià Maroto of the Universitat de Girona for his collaboration in the analysis of animals of Can Roqueta in the framework of project HAR2010-22013 (MINECO, Spain). The research on Minferri was supported by projects HAR2016-78277-R (MINECO, Spain) and SGR 2017-1714 (Generalitat de Catalunya, Catalonia). AGD receives support from the project CGL2014-57209-P (MINECO, Spain). We also acknowledge the veterinary diagnosis of osseous spinal and trauma pathologies to Matias Fernández (608 Farm and Equine Veterinary Surgeons, Quarry Farm, Rowington Green, Rowington, Warwick, Warwickshire, UK) and María Martín Cuervo (Dep. de Medicina Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Spain). We also acknowledge Timothy Anderson for the English translation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Aurora Grandal-d’Anglade.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Grandal-d’Anglade, A., Albizuri, S., Nieto, A. et al. Dogs and foxes in Early-Middle Bronze Age funerary structures in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula: human control of canid diet at the sites of Can Roqueta (Barcelona) and Minferri (Lleida). Archaeol Anthropol Sci 11, 3949–3978 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-019-00781-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula
  • Early-Middle Bronze Age
  • Stable isotopes
  • Canid diet