A multi-proxy study of anthropogenic sedimentation and human occupation of Gledswood Shelter 1: exploring an interior sandstone rockshelter in Northern Australia

Abstract

Rockshelters contain some of the most important archives of human activity in Australia but most research has focused on artifacts and cultural context. This study explores geomorphological and geoarchaeological approaches for understanding a sandstone rockshelter in interior northern Australia: Gledswood Shelter 1. At this site, magnetic susceptibility and micromorphology techniques were integrated with bulk sedimentology, soil chemistry and geochronology to better understand the record of human impact and site formation processes. The micromorphology studies indicate that primary depositional fabrics, such as graded bedding or laminations, are absent, and sediment structural development is low throughout the entire sequence, with most samples exhibiting a high degree of post-depositional mixing. The sediment magnetic susceptibility analysis reveals magnetic changes coinciding with human occupation, a result of anthropogenic burning. Specifically we highlight that combustion features are prevalent in this sandstone shelter and provide critical insights into the human usage of the shelter.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  1. Abbott JT (1997) Stratigraphy and Geoarchaeology of the Red Canyon Rockshelter, Cross County, Wyoming. Geoarchaeology 12(4):315–335

  2. Ajas A, Bertran P, Lemée L, Queffelec A (2013) Stratigraphy and palaeopedology of the Palaeolithic cave site of Combe-Saunière, southwest France. Geoarchaeology 28:432–449

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Allen MJ, Macphail RI (1987) Micromorphology and magnetic susceptibility studies: their combined role in interpreting archaeological soils and sediments. In: Federoff N, Bresson LM, Courty MA (eds) Soil micromorphology. Plaisir/l’Association Francaise pour l’Etude du Sol, Pairs, pp 669–676

    Google Scholar 

  4. Allen J, O’Connell JF (2014) Both half right: updating the evidence for dating first human arrivals in Sahul. Aust Archaeol 79:86–108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bailey G (2007) Time perspectives, palimpsests and the archaeology of time. J Anthropol Archaeol 26:198–223

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bailey GN, Woodward JC (1997) The Klithi deposits: sedimentology, stratigraphy and chronology. In: Bailey GN (ed) Klithi: Palaeolithic Settlement and Quaternary Landscapes in Northwest Greece, vol 1, Excavation and Intra-Site Analysis at Klithi. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, pp 61–94

    Google Scholar 

  7. Banerjea RY, Bell M, Matthews W, Brown A (2013) Applications of micromorphology to understanding activity areas and site formation processes in experimental hut floors. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 7(1):89–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Banerjee SK (1981) Experimental methods of rock magnetism and paleomagnetism. In: Saltzman B (ed) Advances in geophysics, vol 23. Academic Press, New York, pp 25–99

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bazylinski DA, Moskowitz BM (1997) Microbial biomineralization of magnetic iron minerals; microbiology, magnetism and environmental significance. Rev Mineral Geochem 35(1):181–223

    Google Scholar 

  10. Beauvais A, Bertaux J (2002) In situ characterization and differentiation of kaolinites in lateritic weathering profiles using infrared microspectroscopy. Clay Clay Miner 50(3):314–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bettis EA (1988) Pedogenesis in late Prehistoric Indian mounds, upper Mississippi valley. Phys Geogr 9:263–279

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bird MI, Turney CSM, Fifield LK, Jones R, Ayliffe LK, Palmer A, Cresswell R, Robertson S (2002) Radiocarbon analysis of teh early archaeological site of Nauwalabila I, Arnhem Land, Australia: implications for sample suitability and stratigraphic integrity. Quat Sci Rev 21:1061–1075

  13. Birkeland PW (1999) Soils and Geomorphology. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bowdery D (1998) Phytolith analysis applied to Pleistocene-Holocene archaeological sites in the Australian arid zone, BAR International Monograph Series 695. Hadrian Books, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bowdler S (1977) The coastal colonisation of Australia. In: Allen J, Golson J, Jones R (eds) Sunda and Sahul: prehistoric studies in Southeast Asia Melanesia and Australia. Academic Press, London and New York, pp 205–246

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bowler JM, Price DM (1998) Luminescence dates and stratigraphic analyses at Lake Mungo: review and new perspectives. Archaeol Ocean 33:156–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Bronk Ramsey C, Dee M, Lee S, Nakagawa T, Staff R (2010) Developments in the calibration and modelling of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 52(3):953–961

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Bureau of Meteorology (2013) Monthly mean maximum temperature: Richmond Post Office. [Online]. Commonwealth of Australia, Melbourne. Available: http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_030045.shtml Accessed 31 Jan 2013.

  19. Canti MG (2003) Aspects of the chemical and microscopic characteristics of plant ashes found in archaeological soils. Catena 54(3):339–361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Carah X (2010) Corridors and callitris: examining the changing use of environment through the Gledswood Shelter 1 wood charcoal assemblage. School of Social Science, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Unpublished BA(Hons) Thesis

    Google Scholar 

  21. Chamritski I, Burns G (2005) Infrared and Raman-active phonons of magnetite, maghemite and hematite: a computer simulation and spectroscopic study. J Phys Chem B 109(11):4965–4968

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Chukanov NV (2013) Infrared spectra of mineral species: extended library., Springer Science and Business Media

  23. Clarkson C, Smith M, Marwick B, Fullagar R, Wallis LA, Faulkner P, Manne T, Hayes E, Roberts RG, Jacobs Z, Carah X, Lowe KM, Matthews J, Florin SA (2015) The archaeology, chronology and stratigraphy of Madjedbebe (Malakununja II): A site in northern Australia with early occupation. J Hum Evol 83:46–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Craig JR, Vaughan DJ, Hagni RD (1981) Ore microscopy and ore petrography (vol. 406). Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  25. Dalan RA, Banerjee SK (1998) Solving archaeological problems using techniques of soil magnetism. Geoarchaeology 13:3–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. David B, Roberts RG, Tuniz C, Jones R, Head J (1997) New optical and radiocarbon dates from Ngarrabullgan Cave, a Pleistocene archaeological site in Australia: implications for the comparability of time clocks and for the colonization of Australia. Antiquity 71:183–188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. David B, Roberts RG, Magee J, Mialanes J, Turney C, Bird M, White C, Fifield LK, Tibby J (2007) Sediment mixing at Nonda Rock: investigations of stratigraphic integrity at an early archaeological site in northern Australia and implications for the human colonization of the continent. J Quat Sci 22:449–479

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Davidson I, Sutton SA, Gale SJ (1993) The human occupation of Cuckadoo 1 rockshelter, northwest Central Queensand. In: Smith MA, Spriggs M, Fankhauser B (eds) Sahul in review: Pleistocene Archaeology in Australia, New Guinea and Island Melanesia. Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra, pp 164–172

    Google Scholar 

  29. Dearing JA, Hay KL, Baban SMJ, Hudleston SA, Wellington EMH, Loveland PJ (1996) Magnetic susceptibility of soil: an evaluation of conflicting theories using a national data set. Geophysics Journal International 127:728–734

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Dearing JA, Bird PM, Dann RJL, Benjamin SF (1997) Secondary ferrimagnetic minerals in Welsh soils: a comparison of mineral magnetic detection methods and implications form mineral formation. Geophys J Int 130:727–736

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Dekkers MJ (1990) Magnetic properties of natural goethite—III: magnetic behaviour and properties of minerals originating from geothite dehydration during thermal demagnetization. Geophysics Journal International 103:233–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Derbyshire E, Kemp R, Meng X (1995) Variations in loess and palaeosol properties as indicators of palaeoclimatic gradients across the Loess Plateau of north China. Quat Sci Rev 14(7):681–697

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Dockrill SJ, Simpson IA (1994) The identification of prehistoric anthropogenic soils in the Northern Isles using an integrated sampling methodology. Archaeol Prospect 1(2):75–92

    Google Scholar 

  34. Downs RT (2006) The RRUFF Project: an integrated study of the chemistry, crystallography, raman and infrared spectroscopy of minerals. Program and Abstracts of the 19th General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association in Kobe, Japan

  35. Ellwood BB, Petruso KM, Harrold FB, Schuldenrein J (1997) High-resolution paleoclimatic trends for the Holocene identified using magnetic susceptibility data from archaeological excavations in caves. J Archaeol Sci 24:569–573

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Ellwood B, Harrold FB, Benoist SL, Thacker P, Otte M, Bonjean D, Long GJ, Shahin AM, Hermann RP, Grandjean F (2004) Magnetic susceptibility applied as an age-depth-climate relative dating technique using sediments from Scladina Cave, a late Pleistocene cave site in Belgium. J Archaeol Sci 31:283–293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Evans ME, Heller F (2003) Environmental magnetism: principles and applications of enviromagnetics. Academic Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  38. Farrand WR (1975) Sediment analysis of a prehistoric rockshelter: the Abri Pataud. Quatern Res 5:1–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Farrand WR (2001) Sediments and stratigraphy in rockshelters and caves: a personal perspective on principles and pragmatics. Geoarchaeology 16:537–557

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Fassbinder JWE, Stanjekt H, Vali H (1990) Occurrence of magnetic bacteria in soil. Nature 343(6254):161–163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Fifield LK, Bird MI, Turney CSM, Hausladen PA, Santos GM, di Tada ML (2001) Radiocarbon dating of the human occupation of Australia prior to 40 ka BP—success and pitfalls. Radiocarbon 43:1139–1145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. French C, Periman R, Cummings LS, Hall S, Goodman‐Elgar M, Boreham J (2009) Holocene alluvial sequences, cumulic soils and fire signatures in the middle Rio Puerco Basin at Guadalupe Ruin, New Mexico. Geoarchaeology 24(5):638–676

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Ghiorse WC, Ehrlich HL (1992) Microbial biomineralization of iron and manganese. Catena, Supplement (21):75–99

  44. Gifford-Gonzalez DP, Damrosch DB, Damrosch DR, Pryor J, Thunen RL (1985) The third dimension in site structure: an experiment in trampling and vertical dispersal. Am Antiq 50:803–818

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Goldberg P, Berna F (2010) Micromorphology and context. Quat Int 214(1):56–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Goldberg P, Macphail R (2006) Practical and theoretical geoarchaeology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  47. Goldberg P, Sherwood SC (2006) Deciphering human prehistory through the geoarcheological study of cave sediments. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News and Reviews 15(1):20–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Hanesch M, Stanjek H, Petersen N (2006) Thermomagnetic measuresments of soil iron minerals: the role of organic carbon. Geophys J Int 165:53–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Hedges RE, Millard AR (1995) Bones and groundwater: towards the modelling of diagenetic processes. J Archaeol Sci 22(2):155–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Herries AIR (2006) Archaeomagnetic evidence for climate change at Sibudu cave. South African Humanities 18:131–147

    Google Scholar 

  51. Herries AIR (2009) New approaches for integrating palaeomagnetic and mineral magnetic methods to answer archaeological and geological questions on Stone Age sites. In: Fairbairn A, O’Conner S, Marwick B (eds) New directions in archaeological science. The Australian National University Press, Canberra, pp 235–253

    Google Scholar 

  52. Herries AIR, Fisher EC (2010) Multidimensional GIS modeling of magnetic mineralogy as a proxy for fire use and spatial patterning: evidence from the Middle Stone Age bearing sea cave of Pinnacle Point 13B (Western Cape, South Africa). J Hum Evol 59:306–320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Hiscock P (1988) Prehistoric settlement patterns and artefact manufacture at Lawn Hill, Northwest Queensland. School of Social Science, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Unpublished PhD thesis

    Google Scholar 

  54. Hiscock P (2008) Archaeology of ancient Australia. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, London

    Google Scholar 

  55. Hogg AG, Hua Q, Blackwell PG, Niu M, Buck CE, Guilderson TP, Heaton TJ, Palmer JG, Reimer PJ, Reimer RW, Turney CSM, Zimmerman SRH (2013) SHCal13 southern hemisphere calibration, 0–50,000 years cal. BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):1889–1903

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Holliday VT (1988) Genesis of a late Holocene soil chronosequence at the Lubbock Lake archaeological site, Texas. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 78:594–610

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Hughes PJ, Lampert RJ (1977) Occupational disturbance and types of archaeological deposit. J Archaeol Sci 4:135–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Hunt CP, Banerjee SK, Han J-M, Solheid PA, Oches EA, Sun W-W, Liu T-S (1995) Rock-magnetic proxies of climate change in the loess-paleosol sequences of the western Loess Plateau of China. Geophys J Int 123:232–244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Ingram RL (1971) Sieve analysis. In: Carver RE (ed) Procedures in sedimentary petrology. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 49–69

    Google Scholar 

  60. Jordanova N, Petrovsky E, Kovacheva M, Jordanova D (2001) Factors determining magnetic enhancement of burnt clay from archaeological sites. J Archaeol Sci 28:1137–1148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Ketterings QM, Bigham JM, Laperche V (2000) Changes in soil mineraology and texture caused by slash-and-burn fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Soil Science of American Journal 64:1108–1117

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Keys BO (2009) Engrained in the past: using geoarchaeology to understand site formation processes at the Gledswood Shelter 1 Site, Northwest Queensland. University of Flinders, Adelaide, Unpublished BArch (Honors) thesis

    Google Scholar 

  63. King JW, Banerjee SK, Marvin J, Özdemir Ö (1982) A comparison of different magnetic methods for determining the relative grain size of magnetite in natural materials: some results in lake sediments. Earth Planet Sci Lett 59:404–419

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Kooistra MJ, Pulleman MM (2010) Features related to faunal activity. In: Stoops G, Marcelino V, Mees F (eds) Interpretation of micromorphological features of soils and regoliths. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 397–418

    Google Scholar 

  65. Kovda I, Mermut AR (2010) Vertic features. In: Stoops G, Marcelino V, Mees F (eds) Interpretation of micromorphological features of soils and regoliths. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 109–127

    Google Scholar 

  66. Lamb L (1996) Investigating changing stone technologies, site use and occupational intensities at Fern Cave, north Queensland. Aust Archaeol 42:1–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Le Borgne E (1960) Influence de feu sur les proprietes magnetiques du sol et sur celles du schist et du grantie. Ann Geophys 16:159–195

    Google Scholar 

  68. Lindbo DL, Stolt MH, Vepraskas MJ (2010) Redoximorphic features. In: Stoops G, Marcelino M, Mees F (eds) Interpretation of micromorphological features of soils and regoliths. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 129–147

    Google Scholar 

  69. Linford N, Linford P, Platzman E (2005) Dating environmental change using magnetic bacteria in archaeological soils from the upper Thames Valley, UK. J Archaeol Sci 32(7):1037–1043

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Liu QS, Deng C, Yu Y, Torrent J, Jackson MJ, Banerjee SK, Zhu R (2005) Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility in Argon environment: implications for pedogenesis of Chinese loess/paleosols. Geophys J Int 161(1):102–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Lowe KM, Shulmeister J, Feinber JM, Manne T, Wallis LA, Welsh K (2016) Using soil magnetic properties to determine the onset of Pleistocene human settlement at Gledswood Shelter 1, northern Australia. Geoarchaeology 31:211–228

  72. Maher BA (1986) Characterisation of soils by mineral magnetic measurements. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interior 42:76–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Maher BA (1998) Magnetic properties of modern soils and Quaternary loessic paleosols: Paleoclimatic implications. Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Palaeoecology 137:25–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Maher BA, Taylor RM (1988) Formation of ultrafine-grained magnetite in soils. Nature 336:368–371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Marmet E, Bina M, Fedoroff N, Tabbagh A (1999) Relationships between human activity and the magnetic properties of soils: a case study in the medieval site of Roissy-en-France. Archaeol Prospect 6:161–170

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Marwick B (2002) Milly’s Cave: evidence for human occupation of the inland Pilbara during the Last Glacial Maximum. In: Ulm SC, Westcott C, Reid J, Ross A, Lilley I, Prangnell J, Kirkwood L (eds) Barries, borders, boundaries: Proceedings of the 2001 Australian Archaeological Association Annual Conference, Tempus 7. Anthropology Musem, The Univeristy of Queensland, St Lucia, pp 21–33

    Google Scholar 

  77. Marwick B (2005) Element concentrations and magnetic susceptibility of anthrosols: indicators of prehistoric human occupation in the inland Pilbara, Western Australia. J Archaeol Sci 32:1357–1368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. McManus J (1988) Grain size determination and interpretation. In: Tucker ME (ed) Techniques in sedimentology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 63–85

    Google Scholar 

  79. Mentzer SM (2014) Microarchaeological approaches to the identification and interpretation of combustion features in prehistoric archaeological sites. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 21(3):616–668

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Mentzer SM, Quade J (2013) Compositional and isotopic analytical methods in archaeological micromorphology. Geoarchaeology 28(1):87–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Miller CE, Conard NJ, Goldberg P, Berna F (2009) Dumping, sweeping and trampling: experimental micromorphological analysis of anthropogenically modified combustion features. P@lethnologie 2009:25–37

    Google Scholar 

  82. Moore DM, Reynolds RC (1989) X-ray diffraction and the identification and analysis of clay minerals (vol. 378). Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  83. Morse K, Cameron R, Reynen W (2014) A tale of three caves: new dates for Pleistocene occupation in the inland Pilbara. Aust Archaeol 79:167–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Nielsen AE (1991) Trampling the archaeological record: an experimental study. Am Antiq 56:483–503

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. O’Connell JF, Allen J (2004) Dating the colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia–New Guinea): a review of recent research. J Archaeol Sci 31:835–853

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. O’Connor S, Veth P, Barham A (1999) Cultural versus natural explanations for lacunae in Aboriginal occupation deposits in northern Australia. Quat Int 59:61–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Özdemir Ö, Banerjee SK (1984) High temperature stability of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3). Geophys Res Lett 11:161–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Prasad PSR, Prasad KS, Chaitanya VK, Babu EVSSK, Sreedhar B, Murthy SR (2006) In situ FTIR on the dehydration of natural goethite. J Asian Earth Sci 27(4):503–511

  89. Rawling JE (2000) A review of lamellae. Geomorphology 35(1):1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Rayment GE, Lyons DJ (2011) Soil chemical methods—Australasia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood

    Google Scholar 

  91. Richardson N (1992) Conjoin sets and stratigraphic integrity in a sandstone rockshelter: Kenniff Cave (Queensland, Australia). Antiquity 66:408–418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Richardson N (1996) Seeing is believing: a graphical illustration of the vertical and horizontal distribution of conjoined artefacts using DesignCAD 3D. In: Ulm S, Lilley I, Ross A (eds) Australian Archaeology ’95: Proceedings of the 1995 Australian Archaeological Association Annual Conference, Tempus 6. Anthropology Museum, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, pp 81–95

    Google Scholar 

  93. Robin V, Petit S, Beaufort D, Prêt D (2013) Mapping kaolinite and dickite in sandstone thin sections using infrared microspectroscopy. Clay Clay Miner 61(2):141–151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Roebroeks W, Villa P (2011) On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108(13):5209–5214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Rosendahl D, Lowe KM, Wallis LA, Ulm S (2014) Integrating geoarchaeology and magnetic susceptibility at three shell mounds: a pilot study from the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. J Archaeol Sci 49:21–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Singh B, O’Connor S, Veth P, Gilkes R (1991) Detection of amorphous alumino-silicate by x-ray diffraction and chemical analysis to detect firing in archaeological sediments. Archaeol Ocean 26(1):17–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Smart J (1973) Gilberton, Queensland 1:250,000 Geological Series, Explanatory Notes, Sheet SE54-16. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra

    Google Scholar 

  98. Smith MA (1989) The case for a resident human population in the Central Australian ranges during full glacial aridity. Archaeol Ocean 24:93–105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Smith MA (1993) Biogeography, human ecology and prehistory in the sandridge deserts. Aust Archaeol 37:35–50

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Smith MA (2009) Late Quaternary landscapes in Central Australia: sedimentary history and palaeoecology of Puritjarra rock shelter. J Quat Sci 24(7):747–760

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Stahlschmidt MC, Miller CE, Ligouis B, Hambach U, Goldberg P, Berna F, Conard NJ (2015) On the evidence for human use and control of fire at Schöningen. J Hum Evol. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.04.004

    Google Scholar 

  102. Stein JK, Farrand WR (2001) Sediments in archaeological context. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City

    Google Scholar 

  103. Stoops G (2003) Guidelines for analysis and description of soil and regolith thin-sections. Soil Science Society of America, Inc, Madison

    Google Scholar 

  104. Straus LG (1990) Underground archaeology: perspectives on caves and rockshelters. Archaeol Method Theory 2:255–304

    Google Scholar 

  105. Sullivan ME, Hughes PJ (1983) The geoarchaeology of the Sydney Basin sandstones. In: Young RW, Nanson GC (eds) Aspects of Australian sandstone landscapes, Australian and New Zealand Geomorphology Group Special Publication. University of Wollongong, Wollongong, pp 120–126

    Google Scholar 

  106. Thompson R, Oldfield F (1986) Environmental magnetism. Allen and Unwin, London

    Google Scholar 

  107. Tsatskin A, Nadel D (2003) Formation processes at the Ohalo II submerged prehistoric campsite, Israel, inferred from soil micromorphology and magnetic susceptibility studies. Geoarchaeology 18(4):409–432

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Tsatskin A, Zaidner Y (2014) Geoarchaeological context of the later phases of Mousterian occupation (80–115 ka) at Nesher Ramla, Israel: soil erosion, deposition and pedogenic processes. Quat Int 331:103–114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Van der Marel HW, Beutelspacher H (1976) Atlas of Infrared Spectroscopy of Clay Minerals and their Admixtures. Elsevier Publishing Company, New York

    Google Scholar 

  110. Vannieuwenhuyse D, O'Connor S, Balme J (2016) Settling in Sahul: investigating environmental and human history interactions through micromorphological analyses in tropical semi-arid north-west Australia. J Archaeol Sci. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2016.01.017

  111. Veth P (1989) Islands in the interior: a model for the colonization of Australia’s arid zone. Archaeol Ocean 24:81–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Veth P, Smith M, Bowler J, Fitzsimmons K, Williams A, Hiscock P (2009) Excavations at Parnkupirti, Lake Gregory, Great Sandy Desert: OSL ages for occupation before the Last Glacial Maximum. Aust Archaeol 69:1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Wallis LA, Keys B, Moffat I, Fallon S (2009) Gledswood Shelter 1: initial radiocarbon dates from a Pleistocene aged rockshelter site in northwest Queensland. Aust Archaeol 69:71–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Wallis LA, Lowe KM, Popelka-Filcoff R, Bennett JW, St George C, Watson C, Fitzsimmons K, Lenehan C, Watchman A, Wight C, Matthews J (2014) Ochre through the late Quaternary at Gledswood Shelter 1, northwest Queensland. Unpublished paper presented at the Australasian Quaternary Association Biennial Conference, Mildura

    Google Scholar 

  115. Ward I (2004) Comparative records of occupation in the Keep River region of the eastern Kimberley, northwestern Australia. Aust Archaeol 59:1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Ward IAK, Larcombe P (2003) A process-orientated approach to archaeological site formation: application to semi-arid northern Australia. J Archaeol Sci 30:1223–1236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Williams AN, Veth P, Steffen W, Ulm S, Turney CSM, Reeves JM, Phipps SJ, Smith M (2015) A continental narrative: human settlement patterns and Australian climate change over the last 35,000 years. Quat Sci Rev 123:91–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Woodward JC, Bailey GN (2000) Sediment sources and terminal Pleistocene geomorphological processes recorded in rockshelter sequences in northwest Greece. In: Foster IDL (ed) Tracers in geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, pp 521–551

    Google Scholar 

  119. Woodward JC, Goldberg P (2001) The sedimentary records in Mediterranean rockshelters and caves: archives of environmental change. Geoarchaeology 16:327–354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Woodward JC, Hamlin RHB, Macklin MG, Karkanas P, Kotjabopoulou E (2001) Quantitative sourcing of slackwater deposits at Boila rockshelter: a record of late glacial flooding and Paleolithic settlement in the Pindus Mountains, Northwest Greece. Geoarchaeology 16:501–536

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Kathryn Fitzsimmons in the Department of Human Evolution at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology undertook the OSL dating, the results of which will be presented elsewhere. David Appleton in the School of Agriculture and Food Science at The University of Queensland carried out the processing of phosphorous samples and Josh Feinberg, Mike Jackson and Dario Bilardello from the Institute for Rock Magnetism, University of Minnesota, assisted with the magnetic analysis. Stewart Fallon, Ben Keys, Xavier Carah, Claire St George, Chantal Wight, Lydia McKenzie, Dan Rosendahl and Ian Moffat have been involved with various other aspects of the research and are thanked for their contribution to the wider project. We also thank the Woolgar Valley Aboriginal Corporation for supporting this research, including participation during fieldwork, and Flinders University, the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies for funding the research. We would like to acknowledge the generosity and hard work of the RRUFF project and Steve Weiner for making digital reference FTIR spectra available open access. Finally, we thank Jim Allen and Paul Goldberg for earlier comments on the manuscript in addition to James Woodward and one anonymous reviewer. KML was funded by the Institute of Rock Magnetism, University of Minnesota Visiting Research Fellowship and the University of Queensland, through an International Postgraduate Research Scholarship and Centennial Scholarship, and a Graduate School International Travel Award. Funding for μFTIR was provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (MI 1748/3-1).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kelsey M. Lowe.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lowe, K.M., Mentzer, S.M., Wallis, L.A. et al. A multi-proxy study of anthropogenic sedimentation and human occupation of Gledswood Shelter 1: exploring an interior sandstone rockshelter in Northern Australia. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 10, 279–304 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-016-0354-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Magnetic susceptibility
  • Micromorphology
  • FTIR
  • Combustion features
  • Rockshelters
  • Site formation processes
  • Last glacial maximum