The northern fluted point complex: technological and morphological evidence of adaptation and risk in the late Pleistocene-early Holocene Arctic

Original Paper

Abstract

Analyses of fluted point technology and Paleoindian technological risk have contributed to our understanding of human adaptation across North America in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. However, poor chronological control has dissuaded similar studies of fluted points found in Alaska and northern Yukon and our understanding of their adaptive role in early arctic adaptations remains unclear. Two new archeological sites have provided reliable radiocarbon data and for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of northern fluted points is possible. Here, technological and morphological analyses of northern fluted points are presented, including variables statistically evaluated and compared to a collection of fluted Folsom artifacts serving as a reference. Variation in tool shape was measured using geometric morphometrics, and a new approach to landmark placement designed to characterize basal morphology and allow the analysis to include tool fragments is presented. Results confirm that northern fluted points represent a cohesive technological strategy and are used to formulate hypotheses suggesting its service as a risk-management system promoting ease-of-replacement-after-failure to offset transport costs and reduce risk during long-distance travel.

Keywords

Fluted projectile points Late Paleoindian Geometric morphometrics Arctic archeology Technological risk 

References

  1. Abbott MB, Edwards ME, Finney BP (2010) A 40,000-yr record of environmental change from burial Lake in Northwest Alaska. Quaternary Res 74:156–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackerman RE (2001) Spein mountain a Mesa complex site in southwestern Alaska. Arctic Anthropol 38:81–97Google Scholar
  3. Adams DC, Rohlf FJ, Slice DE (2004) Geometric morphometrics: ten years of progress following the ‘revolution’. Ital J Zool 71:5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams DC, Rohlf FJ, Slice DE (2013) A field comes of age: geometric morphometrics in the 21st century. Hystrix 24:7–14Google Scholar
  5. Adams JL (2002) Ground stone analysis: a technological approach. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake CityGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahler S, Geib P (2000) Why flute? Folsom point design and adaptation. J Archaeol Sci 27:277–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alexander HL (1987) Putu: a fluted point site in Alaska. Department of Archaeology. Publication No 17 Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  8. Alix C (2013) A critical resource: wood use and technology in the North American arctic. In: Friesen TM, Mason OK (eds) Oxford Handbook of Arctic Archaeology. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Amick DS (1996) Regional patterns of Folsom mobility and land use in the American southwest. World Archaeol 27:411–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anderson PM, Brubaker LB (1994) Vegetation history of northcentral Alaska: a mapped summary of late-Quaternary pollen data. Quaternary Sci Rev 13:71–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Andrefsky W Jr (2005) Lithics: macroscopic approaches to analysis, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Andrefsky W Jr (2009) The analysis of stone tool procurement, production, and maintenance. J Archaeol Res 17:65–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bamforth D (1986) Technological efficiency and tool curation. Am Antiq 51:38–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bamforth D (1988) Ecology and human organization on the Great Plains. Plenum, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bamforth D, Bleed P (1997) Technology, flaked stone technology, and risk. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 7:109–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beck C, Jones GT (2007) Early Paleoarchaic point morphology and chronology. In: Graf KE, Schmitt DN (eds) Paleoindian or Paleoarchaic? Great Basin human ecology at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp. 23–41Google Scholar
  17. Betttinger R, Boyd R, Richerson P (2003) Style, function, and cultural evolutionary processes. In: O‘Brien MJ, Lyman RL (eds) Style, function, transmission: evolutionary archaeological perspectives. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp. 33–52Google Scholar
  18. Bever MR (2000) Paleoindian lithic technology and landscape use in late Pleistocene Alaska: a study of the Mesa complex. Southern Methodist University, Dallas, DissertationGoogle Scholar
  19. Bever MR (2006) Rethinking the Putu site: results of a spatial analysis of a fluted point site in Northern Alaska. Arct Anthropol 43:20–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bever MR (2008) Distinguishing Holocene microblades from a Paleoindian component at the Mesa site, Alaska. J Field Archaeol 33:133–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bever MR (2012) Environmental change and archaeological transitions in early post-glacial Alaska. In: Bousman CB, Vierra BJ (eds) From the Pleistocene to the Holocene: human organization and cultural transformations in prehistoric North America. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 17–36Google Scholar
  22. Binford L (1977) Forty-seven trips. In: Wright RVS (ed) Stone tools as cultural markers. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, pp. 24–36Google Scholar
  23. Binford L (1980) Willow smoke and dogs’ tails: hunter-gatherer settlement systems and archaeological site formation. Am Antiq 45:4–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bleed P (1986) The optimal design of hunting weapons: maintainability or reliability. Am Antiq 51:737–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bleed P (2002) Cheap, regular, and reliable: implications of design variation in late Pleistocene Japanese microblade technology. Archeol Papers Am Anthropol Assoc 12:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Boldurian P, Fitzgibbons T, Shelley PH, Montgomery JL (1986) A reply to Sollberger and Patterson on experimental Folsom biface manufacture. Plains Anthropol 31:245–248Google Scholar
  27. Bookstein FL (1991) Morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Bousman CB (1993) Hunter-gatherer adaptations, economic risk and tool design. Lithic Technol 19:59–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bousman CB (2005) Coping with risk: later stone age technological strategies at Blydefontein Rock Shelter, South Africa. J Anthropol Archaeol 24:193–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bowers PM (1982) The Lisburne site: analysis and cultural history of a multi-component lithic workshop in the Iteriak valley, arctic foothills, northern Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 20:79–112Google Scholar
  31. Brantingham PJ (2006) Measuring forager mobility. Current Anthropol 47:435–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Buchanan B (2006) An analysis of Folsom projectile point resharpening using quantitative comparisons of form and allometry. J Archaeol Sci 33:185–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Buchanan B, Collard M (2007) Investigating the peopling of North America through cladistic analysis of early Paleoindian projectile points. J Archaeol Sci 26:366–393Google Scholar
  34. Buchanan B, Collard M (2010) An assessment of the impact of resharpening on Paleoindian projectile point blade shape using geometric morphometric techniques. In: Lycett SJ, Chauhan PR (eds) New perspectives on old stones: analytical approaches to Paleolithic technologies. Springer Sciences, New York, pp. 255–273Google Scholar
  35. Buchanan B, Collard M, Hamilton M, O’Brien M (2011) Points and prey: a quantitative test of the hypotheses that prey size influences early Paleoindian projectile point form. J Archaeol Sci 38:852–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cheshier J, Kelly RL (2006) Projectile point shape and durability: the effect of thickness: length. Am Antiq 71:353–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cinq-Mars J, Harington CR, Nelson DE, MacNeish RS (1991) Engigstciak revisited: A note on early Holocene AMS dates from the “Buffalo Pit”. In: Cinq-Mars J, Pilon J (eds) NOGAP archaeology project: an integrated archaeological research and management approach. Occasional Paper Number 1. Journal of the Canadian Archaeological Association, Montreal, pp. 33–44Google Scholar
  38. Clark DW (1972) Archaeology of the Batza Téna obsidian source, west-central Alaska: a preliminary report of initial reconnaissance surveys. Anthropol Papers Univ Alaska 15:1–21Google Scholar
  39. Clark DW, Clark AM (1980) Fluted points from the Batza Téna obsidian source, northwestern interior, Alaska. In: DL B (ed) Early native Americans: prehistoric demography, economy, and technology. Mouton, The Hague, pp. 141–159Google Scholar
  40. Clark DW, Clark AM (1983) Paleo-indians and fluted points: subarctic alternatives. Plains Anthropol 28:283–292Google Scholar
  41. Clark DW, Clark AM (1993) Batza Téna: the trail to obsidian. Archaeological Survey of Canada Mercury Series Paper 147. Canadian Museum of Civilization, HullGoogle Scholar
  42. Collard M, Buchanan B, Hamilton MJ, O’Brien MJ (2010) Spatiotemporal dynamics of the Clovis–Folsom transition. J Archaeol Sci 37:2513–2519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Collins MB (1993) Comprehensive lithic studies: context, technology, style, attrition, breakage, use-wear and organic residues. Lithic Technol 18:7–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cook JP (1971) Final report of the archaeological survey and excavations along the Alyeska pipeline. Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska, Service Company Pipeline RouteGoogle Scholar
  45. Crabtree DE (1966) A stoneworker’s approach to analyzing and replicating the Lindenmeier Folsom. Tebiwa 9:3–39Google Scholar
  46. Davis CW, Linck DC, Schoenberg KM, Shields HM (1981) ) Slogging, humping, and mucking through the npr-a: an archaeological interlude. In: Anthropology and historic preservation, cooperative park studies unit. Occasional Paper 25. University of Alaska, FairbanksGoogle Scholar
  47. De Ruiter DJ, DeWitt TJ, Carlson KB, Brophy JK, Schroeder L, Ackermann RR, Churchill SE, Berger LR (2013) Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba. Sci 340:1232997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Desrosiers PM (2007) Palaeoeskimo lithic technology: constraints and adaptation. Lithic Technol 32:17–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dixon EJ (1985) The Gallagher Flint Station, an early man site on the north slope, arctic Alaska, and its role in relation to the Bering Land Bridge. Arct Anthropol 12:68–75Google Scholar
  50. Dixon EJ (1993) Quest for the origins of the first Americans. University of New Mexico Press, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  51. Dumond DE (1980) The archaeology of Alaska and the peopling of America. Sci 209:984–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dumond DE (2001) The archaeology of eastern Beringia: some contrasts and connections. Arct Anthropol 38:196–205Google Scholar
  53. Edwards ME, Anderson PM, Brubaker LB, Ager TA, Andreev AA, Bigelow NH, Cwynar LC, Eisner WR, Harrison SP, Hu FS, Jolly D, Lozhkin AV, MacDonald MG, Mock CJ, Ritchie JC, Sher AV, Spear RW, Williams JW, Yu G (2000) Pollen-based biomes for Beringia 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP. J Biogeogr 27:521–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Eerkens JW (1998) Reliable and maintainable technologies: artifact standardization and the early to later mesolithic transition in northern England. Lithic Technol 23:42–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eerkens JW (2000) Practice makes within 5 % of perfect: visual perception, motor skills, and memory in artifact variation. Current Anthropol 41:663–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Eerkens JW, Bettinger RL (2001) Techniques for assessing standardization in artifact assemblages: can we scale material variability? Am Antiq 66:493–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Elias SA, Berman D, Alfimov A (2000) Late Pleistocene beetle faunas of Beringia: where east met west. J Biogeogr 27:1349–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ellis C (2004) Understanding “Clovis” fluted point variability in the northeast: a perspective from the Debert Site, Nova Scotia. Can J Archaeol 28:205–253Google Scholar
  59. Ellis C (2008) The fluted point tradition and the arctic small tool tradition: What’s the connection? J Anthropol Archaeol 27:298–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ellis C, Payne J (1995) Estimating failure rate in fluting based on archaeological data: examples from ne North America. J Field Archaeol 22:459–474Google Scholar
  61. Esdale JA, Le Blanc RJ, Cinq-Mars J (2001) Periglacial geoarchaeology at the Dog Creek Site, northern Yukon. Geoarchaeol 16:151–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Feltz CJ, Miller GE (1996) An asymptotic test for the equality of coefficients of variation from K populations. Statistics in Medicine 15:647–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Flenniken JJ (1978) Reevaluation of the Lindenmeier Folsom: a replication experiment in lithic technology. Am Antiq 43:473–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Frison GC (1989) Archaeology experimental use of Clovis weaponry and tools on African elephants. Am Antiq 54:766–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Frison GC (1991) Prehistoric hunters of the high plains, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Frison GC, Bradley BA (1981) Fluting Folsom projectile points: archeological evidence. Lithic Technol 10:13–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Frison GC, Bradley BA (1982) Fluting and Folsom projectile points. In: Frison G, Stanford D (eds) The Agate Basin site: a record of the Paleoindian occupation of the northwestern high plains. Academic Press, New York, pp. 209–212Google Scholar
  68. Gal R (1976) Paleo-indians of the Brooks Range: a tradition of uncontrolled comparison. In: Paper presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  69. Gillam JC, Anderson DG, Peterson AT (2007) A continental-scale perspective on the peopling of the Americas: modeling geographic distributions and ecological niches of Pleistocene populations. Cur Res Pleis 24:86–90Google Scholar
  70. Goebel T, Powers R, Bigelow N (1991) The Nenana complex of Alaska and Clovis origins. In: Bonnichsen R, Turnmire K (eds) Clovis origins and adaptations. Center for the Study of the First Americans. Oregon State University, Corvallis, pp. 49–79Google Scholar
  71. Goebel T, Smith H, DiPietro L, Waters M, Hockett B, Graf K, Gal R, Slobodin S, Speakman R, Driese S, Rhode D (2013) Serpentine Hot Springs, Alaska: results of excavations and implications for the age and significance of northern fluted points. J Archaeol Sci 40:4222–4233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gonzalez-Jose R, Charlin J (2012) Relative importance of modularity and other morphological attributes on different types of lithic point weapons: assessing functional variations. PLoS One 7:e48009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Graf KE, Bigelow NH (2011) Human response to climate during the younger Dryas chronozone in central Alaska. Quat Int 242:434–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gryba, E M (1988) An inventory of fluted point occurrences in Alberta. Manuscript on file with the Archaeological Survey of AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  75. Gryba EM (2006) An assessment of the free-hand pressure flaking technique of precontact North America. Lithic Technol 31:57–77Google Scholar
  76. Guthrie RD (2001) Origin and causes of the mammoth steppe: a story of cloud cover, woolly mammal tooth pits, buckles, and inside-out Beringia. Quaternary Sci Rev 20:549–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Guthrie RD (1983) Paleoecology of the site and its implication for early hunters. In: Powers R, Guthrie RD, Hoffecker JF (eds) Dry Creek: archaeology and paleoecology of a late pleistocene Alaskan hunting camp. Alaska Regional Office, US National Park Service, Anchorage, pp. 6–1–6–75Google Scholar
  78. Hamilton TD, Goebel T (1999) Late Pleistocene peopling of Alaska. In: Bonnichsen R, Turnmire KL (eds) Ice age peoples of North America: environments, origins, and adaptations. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 156–199Google Scholar
  79. Hayden B (1981) Subsistence and ecological adaptations of modem hunter/gatherers. In: RSO H, Teleki G (eds) Omnivorous primates. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 344–421Google Scholar
  80. Haynes G, Anderson DG, Ferring CR, Fiedel SJ, Grayson D, Haynes CV Jr, Holliday VT, Huckell B, Kornfeld M, Meltzer DJ, Morrow J, Surovell T, Waguespack NM, Wigand P, Yohe RM II (2007) Comment on “redefining the age of Clovis: implications for the peopling of the Americas”. Sci 317:320bCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hedman W (2010) The raven bluff site: preliminary findings from a late Pleistocene site in the Alaskan arctic. US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land ManagementGoogle Scholar
  82. Hoffecker JF (2001) Late Pleistocene and early Holocene sites in the Nenana river valley, central Alaska. Arct Anthropol 38:139–153Google Scholar
  83. Hoffecker JF (2002) The Eastern Gravettian “Kostenki culture” as an arctic adaptation. Anthropol U Alaska 2:116–136Google Scholar
  84. Hoffecker JF, Powers WR, Goebel T (1993) The colonization of Beringia and the peopling of the new world. Sci 259:46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Holmes CE (2001) Tanana river valley archaeology circa 14,000 to 9000 BP. Arct Anthropol 38:154–170Google Scholar
  86. Holmes CE (1971) The Prehistory of the upper Koyukok river region in north-central Alaska. In: Cook JP (ed) Final report of the archaeological survey and excavations along the Alyeska. Pipeline Service Company Pipeline Route to Fulfill Task Order 9 Submitted to Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, Anchorage, pp. 326–400Google Scholar
  87. Humphrey RL (1966) The prehistory of the Utukok river region arctic Alaska: early fluted point tradition with old world relationships. Current Anthropol 7:586–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hutchings WK (1997) The Paleoindian fluted point: dart or spear armature? The identification of Paleoindian delivery technology through the analysis of lithic fracture velocity. Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, DissertationGoogle Scholar
  89. Inizan ML, Reduron-Ballinger M, Roche H, Tixier J (1999) Technology and terminology of knapped stone. CREP, NanterreGoogle Scholar
  90. Irving WN, Cinq-Mars J (1974) A tentative archaeological sequence for Old Crow Flats, Yukon Territory. Arct Anthropol 11(supplement):65–81Google Scholar
  91. Jelinek AJ (1976) Form, function and style in lithic analysis. In: Cleland CE (ed) Cultural change and continuity: essays in honor of James Bennett Griffin. Academic, New York, pp. 19–33Google Scholar
  92. Jelinek AJ (1977) The lower Paleolithic: current evidence and interpretations. Ann Rev Anthropol 6:11–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Jennings TA (2013) The Hogeye Clovis Cache, Texas: quantifying lithic reduction signatures. J Archaeol Sci 40:649–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Jodry MAB (1999) Folsom technological and socioeconomic strategies: views from Stewart’s cattle guard and the Upper Rio Grande Basin. Dissertation, American University, Washington, DC, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  95. Judge WJ (1973) Paleoindian occupation of the central Rio Grande valley in New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  96. Kaufman DS, Manley WF (2004) Pleistocene maximum and late Wisconsinan glacier extents across Alaska, U.S.A. In: Ehlers J, PL G (eds) Quaternary Glaciations Extent and Chronology Part II: North America. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 9–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Keeley LH (1982) Hafting and retooling: effects on the archaeological record. Am Antiq 47:798–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kelly RL, Todd LC (1988) Coming into the country: early Paleoindian hunting and mobility. Am Antiq 53:231–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kuhn SL (1994) A formal approach to the design and assembly of mobile toolkits. Am Antiq 59:426–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kuhn SL (1989) Hunter-gatherer foraging organization and strategies of artifact replacement and discard. In: Amick DS, Mauldin R P (eds) Experiments in lithic technology. BAR International Series, 528 British Archaeological Reports, Oxford, pp. 33–48Google Scholar
  101. Kunz, M, Bever, M, Adkins, C (2003) The Mesa site: Paleoindians above the arctic circle. BLM-Alaska Open File Report 86, US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, AnchorageGoogle Scholar
  102. Lee RB (1968) What hunters do for a living, or, how to make out on scarce resources. In: Lee RB, DeVore I (ed) Man the hunter. Aldine, Chicago, pp. 30–43Google Scholar
  103. Lie Ø, Paasche Ø (2006) How extreme was northern hemisphere seasonality during the younger Dryas? Quaternary Sci Rev 25:404–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. MacNeish RS (1956) The Engigstciak site on the Yukon arctic coast. Anthropol U Alaska 4:91–111Google Scholar
  105. Mann DH, Peteet DM, Reanier RE, Kunz ML (2002) Responses of an arctic landscape to late glacial and early Holocene climatic changes: the importance of moisture. Quaternary Sci Rev 21:997–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mann DH, Reanier RE, Peteet DM, Kunz M, Johnson M (2001) Environmental change and arctic Paleoindians. Arct Anthropol 38:119–138Google Scholar
  107. Meltzer DJ (2003) Lessons in landscape learning. In: Rockman M, Steele J (eds) Colonization of unfamiliar landscapes: the archaeology of adaptation. Routledge, London, pp. 222–241Google Scholar
  108. Meyer H, Schirrmeister L, Yoshikawa K, Opel T, Wetterich S, Hubberten H, Brown J (2010) Permafrost evidence for severe winter cooling during the Younger Dryas in northern Alaska. Geophys Res Lett 37:L03501Google Scholar
  109. Miller DS, Smallwood AM (2012) Beyond stages: modeling Clovis biface production at the topper site (38AL23), South Carolina. In: Carr P, Bradbury A, Price S (eds) Lithic analysis: problems, solutions, and interpretations. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, pp. 28–41Google Scholar
  110. Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Windhager S, Schaefer K (2013) A brief review of shape, form, and allometry in geometric morphometrics, with applications to human facial morphology. Hystrix 24:59–66Google Scholar
  111. Morrow JE (1995) Clovis projectile point manufacture: a perspective from the ready/Lincoln Hills site, 11JY46, Jersey County, Illinois. Midcontinental J Archaeol 20:167–191Google Scholar
  112. Morrow JE, Morrow TA (1999) Geographic variation in fluted projectile points: a hemispheric perspective. Am Antiq 64:215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Musil, R R (1988) Functional efficiency and technological change: a hafting tradition model for prehistoric North America. In: Willig, J A, Aikens, C M, Fagan, J L (eds) Early human occupation in far Western North America: the Clovis-archaic interface. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers Number 21, pp 373–387Google Scholar
  114. O’Brien MJ, Darwent J, Lyman RL (2001) Cladistics is useful for reconstructing archaeological phylogenies: Paleoindian points from the southeast United States. J Archaeol Sci 28:1115–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Odell GH (2001) Stone tool research at the end of the millennium: classification, function, and behavior. J Archaeol Res 9:45–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Odell GH, Cowan F (1986) Experiments with spears and arrows on animal targets. J Field Archaeol 13:195–212Google Scholar
  117. Okumura M, Araujo AGM (2014) Long-term cultural stability in hunter-gatherers: a case study using traditional and geometric morphometric analysis of lithic stemmed bifacial points from southern Brazil. J Archaeol Sci 45:59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Oswald WW, Brubaker LB, Hu FS, Gavin DG (2003) Pollen-vegetation calibration for tundra communities in the arctic foothills, Northern Alaska. J Ecol 91:1022–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Oswalt WH (1976) An anthropological analysis of food-getting technology. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  120. Potter BA (2011) Late Pleistocene and early Holocene assemblage variability in central Alaska. In: Goebel T, Buvit I (eds) From the Yenisei to the Yukon: interpreting lithic assemblage variability in late Pleistocene/early Holocene Beringia. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 215–233Google Scholar
  121. Powers WR, Hoffecker JF (1989) Late Pleistocene settlement in the Nenana Valley, central Alaska. Am Antiq 54:263–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rasic J (2008) Paleoalaskan adaptive strategies viewed from northwest Alaska Dissertation. Washington State University, Pullman, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  123. Rasic J (2011) Functional variability in the late Pleistocene archaeological record of eastern Beringia: a model of late Pleistocene land use and technology from northwest Alaska. In: Goebel T, Buvit I (eds) From the Yenisei to the Yukon: interpreting lithic assemblage variability in late Pleistocene/early Holocene Beringia. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 128–164Google Scholar
  124. Reanier RE (1994) The Putu site: Pleistocene or Holocene? Current Res Pleis 11:148–151Google Scholar
  125. Reanier RE (1995) The antiquity of Paleoindian materials in northern Alaska. Arct Anthropol 32:31–50Google Scholar
  126. Reanier RE (1996) Putu and Bedwell. In: West FH (ed) American beginnings: the prehistory and palaeoecology of Beringia. The University Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 505–511Google Scholar
  127. Rhode D, Madsen DB, Brantingham PJ, Goebel T (2003) Human occupation in the Beringian “Mammoth Steppe”: starved for fuel, or dung-burner’s paradise? Curr Res Pleis 20:68–70Google Scholar
  128. Rick JW (1996) Projectile points, style, and social process in Peru. In: Odell GH (ed) Stone tools: theoretical insights into human prehistory. Plenum, New York, pp. 245–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rohlf FJ (1999) Shape statistics: Procrustes superimpositions and tangent spaces. J Classification 16:197–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rohlf FJ, Slice DE (1990) Extensions of the Procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks. Syst Zool 39:40–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rohlf FJ (2008a) tpsDig Version 2.12, Department of Ecology and Evolution. State University of New York, Stony BrookGoogle Scholar
  132. Rohlf FJ (2008b) Relative Warps Version 1.45, Department of Ecology and Evolution. State University of New York, Stony BrookGoogle Scholar
  133. Ruehl CB, DeWitt TJ (2007) Trophic plasticity and foraging performance in red Drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 349:284–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sackett JR (1982) Approaches to style in lithic archaeology. J Anthropol Archaeol 1:59–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sellet F (2004) Beyond the point: projectile manufacture and behavioral inference. J Archaeol Sci 31:1553–1566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sellet F (2013) Anticipated mobility and its archaeological signature: a case study of Folsom retooling strategies. J Anthropol Archaeol 32:383–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Shott MJ (1986) Technological organization and settlement mobility: an ethnographic examination. J Anthropol Res 42:15–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Smith E, Boyd R (1990) Risk and reciprocity: hunter-gatherer socioecology and the problem of collective action. In: Cashdan E (ed) Risk and uncertainty in tribal and peasant economies. Westview, Boulder, pp. 167–192Google Scholar
  139. Smith, HL (2010) A behavioral analysis of Clovis point morphology using geometric morphometrics. Masters Thesis, Texas A&M University, College StationGoogle Scholar
  140. Smith HL, Rasic J, Goebel T (2013) Biface traditions of Northern Alaska and their role in the peopling of the Americas. In: Graf K E, Ketron C V, Waters M R (eds) Paleoamerican odyssey. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 105–123Google Scholar
  141. Smith HL, Smallwood AM, DeWitt T (2014) A geometric morphometric exploration of Clovis fluted-point shape variability. In: Smallwood AM, Jennings TA (eds) Clovis: on the edge of a new understanding. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 161–180Google Scholar
  142. Solecki RS (1950) A preliminary report of an archaeological reconnaissance of the Kukpowruk and Kokolik rivers in Northwest Alaska. Am Antiq 16:66–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Solecki RS (1951) Notes on two archaeological discoveries in Northern Alaska. Am Antiq 17:55–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Solecki RS, Hackman RJ (1951) Additional data on the Denbigh Flint complex in Northern Alaska. J Washington Acad of Sci 41:85–88Google Scholar
  145. Sollberger JB (1985) A technique for Folsom fluting. Lithic Technol 14:41–50Google Scholar
  146. Stefansson V (1919) The Stefansson-Anderson arctic expedition of the American museum: Preliminary ethnological report. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 14, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  147. Thompson RM (1948) Notes on the archaeology of the Utukok river, northwestern Alaska. Am Antiq 14:62–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Thulman DK (2012) Discriminating Paleoindian point types from Florida using landmark geometric morphometrics. J Archaeol Sci 35:1599–1607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Titmus GL, Woods JC (1986) An experimental study of projectile point fracture patterns. J California and Great Basin Anthropol 8:37–49Google Scholar
  150. Torrence R (1983) Time budgeting and hunter-gatherer technology. In: Bailey G (ed) Hunter-gatherer economy in prehistory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 11–22Google Scholar
  151. Torrence R (1989) Tools as optimal solutions. In: Torrence R (ed) Time, energy and stone tools. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–6Google Scholar
  152. Torrence R (2001) Hunter-gatherer technology: macro- and microscale approaches. In: Panter-Brick C, Layton RH, Rowley-Conwy P (eds) Hunter-gatherers: an interdisciplinary perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 73–97Google Scholar
  153. Wadley L, Hodgskill T, Grant M (2009) Implications for complex cognition from the hafting of tools with compound adhesives in the middle stone age, south Africa. PNAS 106:9590–9594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Waguespack NM, Surovell TA (2003) Clovis hunting strategies, or how to make out on plentiful resources. Amer Antiq 68:333–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Waters MR, Stafford TW Jr (2007) Redefining the age of Clovis: implications for the peopling of the Americas. Sci 315:1122–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Weedman KJ (2006) An ethnoarchaeological study of hafting and stone tool diversity among the Gamo of Ethiopia. J Archaeol Method Th 13:189–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wiessner P (1982) Risk, reciprocity, and social influences on! Kung San economics. In: Leacock E, Lee R (eds) Politics and history in band society. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 61–84Google Scholar
  158. Wiessner P (1985) Style or isochrestic variation? A reply to Sackett. Am Antiq 50:160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wilmsen EN (1973) Interaction, spacing behavior, and the organization of hunting bands. J Anthropol Res 29:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wilmsen EN (1974) Lindenmeier: a Pleistocene hunting society. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  161. Wilmsen EN, Roberts FHH Jr (1978) Lindenmeier, 1934–1974: Concluding report on investigations. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology Number 24. Smithsonian Institution Press, City of WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  162. Winfrey J (1990) An event tree analysis of Folsom point failure. Plains Anthropol 35:263–272Google Scholar
  163. Wygal B (2011) The microblade/non-microblade dichotomy: climatic implications, toolkit variability and the role of tiny tools in eastern Beringia. In: Goebel T, Buvit I (eds) From the Yenisei to the Yukon: interpreting lithic assemblage variability in late Pleistocene/early Holocene Beringia. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 234–245Google Scholar
  164. Young C, Gilbert-Young S (2007) A fluted projectile-point base from Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, northwest Alaska. Current Res Pleis 24:154–156Google Scholar
  165. Zelditch ML, Swiderski D, Sheets HD, Fink W (2004) Geometric morphometrics for biologists: a primer. Elsevier Academic, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for the Study of the First Americans, Department of AnthropologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of Wildlife and Fisheries SciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations