Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 601–624 | Cite as

Did Homo erectus kill a Pelorovis herd at BK (Olduvai Gorge)? A taphonomic study of BK5

  • Elia Organista
  • Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo
  • Charles P. Egeland
  • David Uribelarrea
  • Audax Mabulla
  • Enrique Baquedano
Original Paper

Abstract

New research and excavations at Bell Korongo (BK, Olduvai Gorge, Upper Bed II) have uncovered a dense concentration of megafauna that contributes to our understanding of Homo erectus subsistence strategies around 1.34 Ma. Recent work has yielded clear taphonomic evidence for the exploitation of large-sized animals. The frequency and distribution of cut marks, for example, indicates that hominins enjoyed early access to substantial amounts of meat. This degree of carcass processing, particularly megafauna, suggests that the human group(s) exploiting them were large and had significant nutritional needs. Here, we build upon this work by presenting the first comprehensive taphonomic analysis of the faunal material excavated by the Leakeys at BK between 1952 and 1957 corresponding to 24 Pelorovis oldowayensis. Leakey’s assemblage was biased due to selective collection of the most readily identifiable specimens, among which long bone shafts were not included. The recent assemblage reflects the relevance of using long bone shafts to overcome the equifinality of the alternative scenarios proposed to explain the accumulation of Pelorovis. The analysis of The Olduvai Paleoanthropology and Paleoecology Project’s (TOPPP) recent assemblage sheds light on the reconstruction of hominin strategies of carcass acquisition at BK.

Keywords

Olduvai George Lower Pleistocene archeology Megafaunal Taphonomy Percussion marks Cut marks Hunted 

Supplementary material

12520_2015_241_Fig15_ESM.gif (152 kb)
Fig. A1

Anatomical distribution of percussion and tooth marks on limb bones from small carcasses at BK5. Bones are redrawn from Pales and Lambert (1971) (GIF 151 kb)

12520_2015_241_MOESM1_ESM.tif (12.5 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 12800 kb)
12520_2015_241_Fig16_ESM.gif (247 kb)
Fig. A2

Anatomical distribution of percussion, cut and tooth marks on limb bones from medium carcasses at BK5. Bones are redrawn from Pales and Lambert (1971) (GIF 247 kb)

12520_2015_241_MOESM2_ESM.tif (14.1 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 14473 kb)
12520_2015_241_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (7.1 mb)
ESM 1Details of the bone accumulation where an elephant tibia can be seen (PDF 7262 kb)
12520_2015_241_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (14.8 mb)
ESM 2Surface of BK5 showing fossils and stone tools (PDF 15125 kb)

References

  1. Alcalá L (1994) Macromamíferos neógenos de la fosa Alfambra-Teruel. Instituto de Estudios Turolenses, ZaragozaGoogle Scholar
  2. Barba R, Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2005) The taphonomic relevance of the analysis of bovid long limb bone shaft features and their application to element identification: study of bone thickness and morphology of the medullary cavity. J Taphonomy 3:17–42Google Scholar
  3. Barba R, Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2008) A new taphonomic approach to the study of cut marks for the hunting-and-scavenging debate in Early African sites and its application to the FLK Zinj (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania). Complutum 19(1):9–24Google Scholar
  4. Bartram LE (1993a) An ethnographic analysis of Kua San (Botswana) bone food refuse. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartram LE (1993b) Perspectives on skeletal part profiles and utility curves from Eastern Kalahari ethnoarchaeology. In: Hudson J (ed) From bones to behavior. Center for Archaeological Investigations at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp 115–137Google Scholar
  6. Behrensmeyer AK (1975) The Taphonomy and Paleoecology of Plio-Pleistocene vertebrate assemblages east of Lake Rudolf, Kenya. Bulletin MCZ 145(10):473–574, Ph.D. DissertationGoogle Scholar
  7. Behrensmeyer AK (1978) Taphonomic and ecologic information from bone weathering. Paleobiology 4:150–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Behrensmeyer AK, Gordon KD, Yanagi GT (1986) Trampling as a cause of bone surface damage and psuedo-cutmarks. Nature 319:768–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertran P, Hétu B, Texier J-P, Steijn H (1997) Fabric characteristics of subaerial slope deposits. Sedimentology 44:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Binford LR (1978) Nunamuit ethnoarchaeology. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Binford LR, Bertram JB (1977) Bone frequencies-and attritional processes. In: Binford LR (ed) For theory building in archaeology. Academic Press, New York, pp 77–153Google Scholar
  12. Binford LR, Stone N (1986) Zhoukoudian: a closer look. Curr Anthropol 27:453–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blumenschine RJ, Selvaggio MM (1988) Percussion marks on bone surfaces as a new diagnostic of hominin behavior. Nature 333:763–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blumenschine RJ, Selvaggio MM (1991) On the marks of marrow bone processing by hammerstones and hyenas: their anatomical patterning and archaeological implications. In: Clark, J.D. (Ed.), Cultural beginnings: Approaches to understanding early hominin life ways in the African Savanna. R. Habelt. Bonn, GMBH, pp. 17–32Google Scholar
  15. Blumenschine RJ (1988) An experimental model of the timing of hominin and carnivore influence on archaeological bone assemblages. J Archaeol Sci 15:483–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blumenschine RJ (1995) Percussion marks, tooth marks and the experimental determinations of the timing of hominin and carnivore access to long bones at FLK Zinjanthropus, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. J Hum Evol 29:21–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brain CK (1967) Hottentot food remains and their bearing on the interpretation of fossil bone assemblages. Sci Pap Namib Desert Res Station 32:1–7Google Scholar
  18. Brain CK (1969) The contribution of Namib Desert Hottentots to an understanding of australopithecine bone accumulations. Sci Pap Namib Desert Res Station 39:13–22Google Scholar
  19. Brain CK (1981) The hunters or the hunted? An introduction to African cave taphonomy. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  20. Bunn HT (1981) Archaeological evidence for meat-eating by Plio-Pleistocene hominins from Koobi Fora, Kenya. Nature 291:574–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bunn HT (1982) Meat-eating and human evolution: studies on the diet and subsistence patterns of plio-pleistocene hominins in East Africa (Ph. dissertation). University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  22. Bunn HT (2007) Butchering backstraps and bearing backbones: insights from the Hadza foragers and implications for Paleolithic archaeology. In: Pickering TR, Schick K, Toth N (eds) Breathing life into fossils: A tribute to the career of C.K. Brain. CRAFT Press, Indiana, pp 269–280Google Scholar
  23. Bunn HT, Kroll EM (1986) Systematic butchery by Plio/Pleistocene hominids at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Curr Anthropol 27:431–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bunn HT, Bartram LE, Kroll EM (1988) Variability in bone assemblage formation from Hadza hunting, scavenging, and carcass processing. J Anthropol Archaeol 7:412–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Capaldo SD (1997) Experimental determinations of carcass processing by Plio Pleistocene hominids and carnivores at FLK 22 (Zinjanthropus), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. J Hum Evol 33:555–597Google Scholar
  26. Capaldo SD (1998a) Methods, marks and models for inferring hominin and carnivore behaviour. J Hum Evol 35:323–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Capaldo SD (1998b) Simulating the formation of dual-patterned archaeofaunal assemblages with experimental control simples. J Archaeol Sci 35:311–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Capaldo SD (1995) Inferring hominid and carnivore behavior from dual-patterned archaeological assemblages (Ph. D. thesis). Rutgers University, New Brunswick.Google Scholar
  29. Chernick MR (1999) Bootstrap methods. A practitioner’s guide. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Chernick M, LaBudde RA (2011) Bootstrap methods with applications to R. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  31. Cleghorn N, Marean CW (2004) Distinguishing selective transport and in situ attrition: a critical review of analytical approaches. J Taphonomy 2:43–67Google Scholar
  32. Cleghorn N, Marean CW (2007) The destruction of skeletal elements by carnivores: the growth of a general model for skeletal element destruction and survival in zooarchaeological assemblages. In: Pickering TR, Schick K, Toth N (eds) Breathing life into fossils: Taphonomic studies in Honor of C.K. (Bob) Brain. Stone Age Institute Press, Bloomington, pp 38–66Google Scholar
  33. Cobo-Sánchez L, Aramendi J, Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2014) Orientation patterns of wildebeest bones on the lake Masek floodplain (Serengeti, Tanzania) and their relevance to interpret anisotropy in the Olduvai lacustrine floodplain. Quat Int 322–323:277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cole S (1963) The prehistory of East Africa. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Delpeche F, Villa P (1993) Activités de chasse et boucherie dans la grotte des Eglises. In: Desse, J., Audoin-Rouzeau, F. (Eds.), Exploitation des animaux sauvages a travers le Temps. IV, Colloque International de l’Homme et l’Animal. Editions APDCA, pp. 79–102Google Scholar
  36. Domínguez-Rodrigo M (1997a) Meat eating by early hominids at FLK Zinj 22 site, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: an experimental approach using cut-mark data. J Hum Evol 33:669–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Domínguez-Rodrigo M (1997b) A reassessment of the study of cut mark patterns to infer hominid manipulation of fleshed carcasses at the FLK Zinj 22 site, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Trab Prehist 54:29–42Google Scholar
  38. Domínguez-Rodrigo M (1999) Meat eating and carcass procurement by hominids at the FLK Zinj 22 site, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: a new experimental approach to the old hunting-versus scavenging debate. In: Ullrich H (ed) Lifestyles and survival strategies in Pliocene and Pleistocene hominids. Edition Archaea, Schwelm, pp 89–111Google Scholar
  39. Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2002) Hunting and scavenging by early humans: the state of the debate. J World Prehist 16(1):1–54Google Scholar
  40. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Barba R (2006) New estimates of tooth marks and percussion marks from FLK Zinj, Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania): the carnivore-hominin-carnivore hypothesis falsified. J Hum Evol 50:170–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Barba R, Egeland CP (2007a) Deconstructing Olduvai. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Barba R, de la Torre I, Mora R (2007b) A cautionary tale about early archaeological sites: a reanalysis of FLK North 6. In: Domínguez- Rodrigo M, Barba R, Egeland CP (eds) Deconstructing Olduvai: a taphonomic study of the bed I sites. Springer, New York, pp 101–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Egeland CP, Pickering TR (2007c) Models of passive scavenging by early hominids: problems arising from equifinality in carnivore tooth mark frequencies and the extended concept of archaeological palimpsests. In: Pickering TR, Toth N, Shick K (eds) Breathing life into fossils: taphonomic studies in honor of C.K. (“Bob”) brain. Stone Age Institute Press, Gosport, pp 255–268Google Scholar
  44. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Mabulla A, Bunn HT, Barba R, Diez-Martin F, Egeland CP, Espilez E, Egeland A, Yravedra J, Sánchez P (2009a) Unraveling hominin behavior at another anthropogenic site from Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania): new archaeological and taphonomic research at BK, Upper Bed II. J Hum Evol 57:260–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, De Juana S, Galán AB, Rodríguez M (2009b) A new protocol to differentiate trampling marks from butchery cut marks. J Archaeol Sci 36(12):2643–2654Google Scholar
  46. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Pickering TR, Bunn HT (2010) Configurational approach to identifying the earliest hominin butchers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:20929–20934Google Scholar
  47. Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2012) Conceptual premises in experimental design and their bearing on the use of analogy: a critical example from experiments in cut marks. In: Domínguez-Rodrigo M (ed) Stone tools and fossil bones. Debates in the archaeology of human origins. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 47–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Bunn HT, Pickering TR, Mabulla AZP, Musiba CM, Baquedano E, Ashley GM, Diez-Martin F, Santonja M, Uribelarrea D, Barba R, Yravedra J, Barboni D, Arriaza C, Gidna A (2012) Autochthony and orientation patterns in Olduvai Bed I: a re-examination of the status of postdepositional biasing of archaeological assemblages from FLK North (FLKN). J Archaeol Sci 39:2116–2127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Martínez-Navarro B (2012) Taphonomic analysis of the early Pleistocene (2.4 Ma) faunal assemblage from AL894 (Hadar, Ethiopia). J Hum Evol 62:315–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Garcia-Pérez A (2013) Testing the accuracy of different A-axis types for measuring the orientation of bones in the archaeological and paleontological record. PLoS ONE 8(7):e68955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Bunn HT, Mabulla AZP, Baquedano E, Uribelarrea D, Pérez-González A, Gidna A, Yravedra J, Diez-Martín F, Barba R, Arriaza MC, Egeland CP, Organista E, Ansón M (2014a) On meat eating and human evolution: a taphonomic analysis of BK4b, (Upper Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania) and its bearing on hominin megafaunal consumption. Quat Int 322–323:129–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Uribelarrea D, Santonja M, Bunn HT, García-Pérez A, Pérez-González A, Panera J, Rubio-Jara S, Mabulla A, Baquedano E, Yravedra J, Diez-Martín F (2014b) Autochthonous anisotropy of archaeological materials by the action of water: experimental and archaeological reassessment of the orientation patterns at the Olduvai sites. J Archaeol Sci 41:44–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Diez-Martín F, Yravedra J, Barba R, Mabulla A, Baquedano E, Uribelarrea D, Sánchez P, Eren MI (2014c) Study of the SHK main site faunal assemblage, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: implications for Bed II taphonomy, paleoecology, and hominin utilization of megafauna. Quat Int 322–323:153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Bunn HT, Yravedra J (2014d) A critical re-evaluation of bone surface modification models for inferring fossil hominin and carnivore interactions through a multivariate approach: application to the FLK Zinj archaeofaunal assemblage (Olduvai Gorge; Tanzania). Quat Int 322–323:32–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2015) Re-invalidation of some bone surface modification models for inferring fossil hominin and carnivore feeding interactions. Journal of African Earth Sciences (in press).Google Scholar
  56. Egeland CP (2007) Zooarchaeological and taphonomic perspectives on hominin and carnivore interactions at olduvai Gorge. Ph. D. Dissertation, Indiana University.Google Scholar
  57. Egeland AG, Egeland CP, Bunn HT (2008) Taphonomic analysis of a modern spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) den from Nairobi, Kenya. J Taphonomy 6:275–299Google Scholar
  58. Egeland CP (2012) The use of bone surface modifications to model hominid lifeways during the Oldowan. In: Domínguez-Rodrigo M (ed) Stone tools and fossils bones. Debates in the archaeology of human origins. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 80–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Emerson AE (1990) Archaeological implications of variability in the economic anatomy of Bison bison. Ph.D. Thesis, Washington State University, Washington, DC, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  60. Eren M, Durant A, Neudorf C, Haslam M, Shipton C, Bora J, Korisettar R, Petraglia M (2010) Experimental examination of animal trampling effects on artifact movement in dry and water saturated substrates: a test case from South India. J Archaeol Sci 37:3010–3021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Faith JT, Gordon AD (2007) Skeletal element abundances in archaeofaunal assemblages: economic utility, sample size, and assessment of carcass transport strategies. J Archaeol Sci 34:872–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Faith JT, Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Gordon AD (2009) Long-distance carcass transport at Olduvai Gorge? A quantitative examination of bed I skeletal element abundances. J Hum Evol 56(3):247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fernández-Jalvo Y, Andrews P (2003) Experimental effects of water abrasion on bone fragments. J Taphonomy 1:147–163Google Scholar
  64. Fiorillo AR (1991) Taphonomy and depositional setting of Careless Creek Quarry (Judith River formation), Wheatland County, Montana, U.S.A. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 81:281–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fisher NI (1995) Statistical analysis of circular data. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  66. Frostick L, Reid I (1983) Taphonomic significance of subaerial transport of vertebrate fossils on steep sub-arid slopes. Lethaia 16:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gidna A, Kisui AB, Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2014) An ecological neo-taphonomic study of carcass consumption in Tarangire National Park (Tanzania) and its relevance for human evolutionary biology. Quat Int 322–323:167–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hall P (1997) The bootstrap and edgeworth expansion. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Hay R (1976) Geology of the Olduvai Gorge. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  70. Howard P (2007) Archaeological survey and mapping. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  71. Isaac GL, Behrensmeyer AK (1997) Geological context and palaeoenvironments. Koobi Fora Res Proj 5:12–53Google Scholar
  72. Klein RG, & Cruz-Uribe K (1984) The analysis of animal bones from archaeological sitesGoogle Scholar
  73. Krajcarz M, Krajcarz MT (2013) The redfox (Vulpes vulpes) as an accumulator of bones in cave-like environments. Int J OsteoarchaeolGoogle Scholar
  74. Kreutzer LA (1992) Bison and deer bone mineral densities: comparisons and implications for the interpretation of archaeological faunas. J Archaeol Sci 19:271–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lam YM, Chen X, & Pearson OM (1999) Intertaxonomic variability in patterns of bone density and the differential representation of bovid, cervid, and equid elements in the archaeological record. Am Antiq, 343–362Google Scholar
  76. Leakey LSB (1954) The giant animals of prehistoric Tanaganyika and the hunting grounds of Chellean man. New discoveries in Olduvai Gorge. The Illustrated London News 224, 1047–1051, illustration by Neave ParkerGoogle Scholar
  77. Leakey MD (197)1 Olduvai Gorge. In: Excavations in Bed I and II, 1960–1963, vol. 3. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  78. Lenoble A, Bertran P, Lacrampe F (2008) Solifluction-induced modifications of archaeological levels: simulation based on experimental data from a modern periglacial slope and application of French Palaeolithic sites. J Archaeol Sci 35:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Marean CW (1998) A critique of the evidence for scavenging by Neanderthals and early modern humans: new data from Kobeh Cave (Zagros Mountains, Iran), Die Kielders Cave 1 layer 10, South Africa. J Hum Evol 35:111–136Google Scholar
  80. Marean CW, Spencer LM (1991) Impact of carnivore ravaging of bone in archaeological assemblages. J Archaeol Sci 18:677–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Marean CW, Frey CJ (1997) The animal bones from caves to cities: reverse utility curves as methodological artifacts. Am Antiq 62:698–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Marean CW, Kim S (1998) Mousterian large mammals from Kobech Cave. Curr Anthropol 39:79–113Google Scholar
  83. Marean CW, Cleghorn N (2003) Large mammal skeletal element transport. Applying foraging theory in a complex taphonomic system. J Taphonomy 1:15–42Google Scholar
  84. Marean CW, Spencer LM, Blumenschine RJ, Capaldo SD (1992) Captive hyaena bone choice and destruction, the Schlepp effect and Olduvai archaeofaunas. J Archaeol Sci 19:101–121Google Scholar
  85. Marean CW, Abe Y, Frey CJ, Randall RC (2000) Zooarchaeological and taphonomic analysis of the Die Kelders Cave 1 Layers 10 and 11 middle Stone Age larger mammal fauna. J Hum Evol 38:197–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Monahan CM (1996) New zooarchaeological data from Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: implications for hominid behavior in the Early Pleistocene. J Hum Evol 31:93–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Münzel SC (1988) Quantitative analysis and archaeological site interpretation. Archaeozoologia 2:93–110Google Scholar
  88. O’Connell JF, Hawkes K, Blurton-Jones N (1988a) Hadza hunting, butchering, and bone transport and their archaeological implications. J Anthropol Res 44:113–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. O’Connell JF, Hawkes K, Blurton-Jones N (1988b) Hadza scavenging: implications for Plio-Pleistocene hominid subsistence. Curr Anthropol 29:356–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. O’Connell JF, Hawkes K, Blurton-Jones N (1990) Reanalysis of large mammal body part transport among the Hadza. J Archaeol Sci 17:301–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Olsen SL, Shipman P (1988) Surface modification on bone: trampling versus butchery. J Archaeol Sci 15:535–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Outram A, Rowley-Conwy P (1998) Meat and marrow utility indices for horse (Equus). J Archaeol Sci 25:839–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pales L, Lambert C (1971) Mammiferes du Quaternaire. Les membres (herbivores). Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Paris VIIGoogle Scholar
  94. Pante MC, Blumenschine RJ, Capaldo SD, Scott RS (2012) Validation of bone surface modification models for inferring hominin and carnivore feeding interactions, with reapplication to FLK 22, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. J Hum Evol 63:395–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pante MC, Scott R, Blumenschine RJ, Capaldo S (2015) Revalidation of bone surface modification models for inferring fossil hominin and carnivore feeding interactions. Quat Int 355:164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Parkinson JA (201)3 A GIS image analysis approach to documenting Oldowan hominin carcass acquisition: evidence from Kanjera South, FLK Zinj and neotaphonomic models of carnivore bone destruction. Ph. D. dissertation. Dept. Anthropology, University of New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. Parkinson JA, Hartstone-Rose A, Plummer T (2015) Characterizing felid tooth marking and gross bone damage patterns using GIS image analysis: a report on an experimental feeding study with large felids. J Hum Evol (in press). doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.10.011
  98. Patou-Mathis ME (1984) Contribution a l’étude des mammifères des couches supérieures de la Grotte du Lazaret. M. A. Dissertation. Université de la Sorbonne, Paris (unpublished)Google Scholar
  99. Patou-Mathis ME (1985) La fracturation des os longs de grands mammifères: élaboration d’un lexique et d’une fiche type. Outillage peu élabore en os et en bois de cervidés. Artefacts 1:11–22Google Scholar
  100. Petraglia M (1987) Site formation processes at the Abri Dufaure: a study of upper paleolithic rockshelter and hillslope deposits in Southwestern France (Ph.D. dissertation). University of New MexicoGoogle Scholar
  101. Pickering TR, Wallis J (1997) Bone modifications resulting from captive chimpanzee mastication: implications for the interpretation of Pliocene archaeological faunas. J Archaeol Sci 24(12):1115–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pickering TR, Marean C, Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2003) Importance of limb bone shaft fragments in zooarchaeology: a response to “On in situ attrition and vertebrate body part profiles” (2002), by M.C. Stiner. J Archaeol Sci 30:1469–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pickering TR, Egeland CP (2006) Experimental patterns of hammerstone percussion damage on bones and zooarchaeological inferences of carcass processing intensity by humans. J Archaeol Sci 33:459–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pickering TR, Egeland C, Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Brain CK, Schnell A (2008) Testing the “shift in the balance of power” hypothesis at Swartkrans, South Africa: hominin cave use and subsistence behavior in the Early Pleistocene. J Anthropol Archaeol 27:30–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pobiner B (2007) Hominin-carnivore interactions: evidence from modern carnivore modification and early Pleistocene archaeofaunas (Koobi Fora, Kenya; Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania). Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  106. Prendergast ME, Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2008) Taphonomic analysis of a hyena den and a natural-death assemblage near Lake Eyasi (Tanzania). J Taphonomy 6:301–335Google Scholar
  107. Richardson PRK (1980) Carnivore damage to antelope bones and its archaeological implications. Palaeontol Afr 23:109–125Google Scholar
  108. Schick KD (1984) Processes of palaeolithic site formation: an experimental study (Ph.D. dissertation). University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  109. Shipman P, Rose J (1988) Bone tools: an experimental approach. In: Olsen, S.L. (Ed.), Scanning electron microscopy in archaeology, British Archaeological Reports International Series, vol. 452, pp. 303–335Google Scholar
  110. Smith GM (2015) Neanderthal megafaunal exploitation in western Europe and its dietary implications: a contextual reassessment of La Cotte de St Brelade (Jersey). J Hum Evol 78:181–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sorensen MV, Leonard WR (2001) Neandertal energetics and foraging efficiency. J Hum Evol 40(6):483–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Stein JK (1987) Deposits for archaeologists. In: Schiffer MD (ed) Advances in archaeological method and theory, vol 11. Academic, New York, pp 337–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thompson CE, Ball S, Thompson TJU, Gowland R (2011) The abrasion of modern and archaeological bones by mobile sediments: the importance of transport modes. J Archaeol Sci 38:784–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Toots H (1965) Orientation and distribution of fossils as environmental indicators. In: Nineteenth Field Conference of the Wyoming Geological Association, pp. 219–229Google Scholar
  115. Voorhies M (1969) Taphonomy and population dynamics of an early Pliocene vertebrate fauna, Knox County, Nebraska. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Contributions to Geology Special Paper No. 1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. White TD (1992) Prehistoric cannibalism at mancos 5MTUMR-2346. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  117. Woodcock NH (1977) Specification of fabric shapes using an eigenvalue method. Geol Soc Am Bull 88:1231–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yellen JE (1977) Cultural patterning in faunal remains: evidence from the !Kung bushmen. In: Ingersoll D, Yellen JE, Macdonald W (eds) Experimental archeology. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 271–331Google Scholar
  119. Yravedra J, Domínguez-Rodrigo M (2009) The shaft-based methodological approach to the quantification of long limb bones and its relevance to understanding hominin subsistence in the Pleistocene: application to four Paleolithic sites. J Quat Sci 24:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elia Organista
    • 1
  • Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Charles P. Egeland
    • 3
  • David Uribelarrea
    • 4
  • Audax Mabulla
    • 5
  • Enrique Baquedano
    • 6
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PrehistoryComplutense UniversityMadridSpain
  2. 2.IDEA (Instituto de Evolución en África)Museo de los OrígenesMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of North Carolina at GreensboroGreensboroUSA
  4. 4.Department of GeodynamicsComplutense UniversityMadridSpain
  5. 5.Archaeology UnitUniversity of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania
  6. 6.Museo Arqueológico RegionalAlcalá de HenaresSpain

Personalised recommendations