Advertisement

Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 647–650 | Cite as

From illusions to reality: transformation of the term ‛virtual archaeology’

  • Daria Yu Hookk
Original Paper

Abstract

The appearance of computers as super-brain inspires the hope that archaeology will solve the problem of the multidimensional data presentation. Since 1970s, the international conferences on the computer application in archaeology have discussed the advantages of new technologies. During one of them in 1990, the term virtual archaeology was introduced for the first time by Paul Reilly. He discussed both possibilities: visualizing in the computer screen the total amount of data obtained from the fieldwork and using the technologies applied in the computer games production for scientific aims. The word visualization also became the keyword of the definition given 20 years later in the International Charter on Virtual Аrchaeology. However, in 2007, this interpretation was exposed to critic. Virtual archaeology aims at the application of computer technologies for the creation of high-quality images of archaeological objects as well as in assistance to the archaeological studies. Time has gone; many applied sciences introduced computer technologies, and the possibility to unify and accumulate, to analyse and to demonstrate data appeared. Today, any big scientific research of the archaeological monument supposes the application of natural sciences and computer technologies. The archaeological excavations and virtual archaeology are parts of one infinite process, and the virtual archaeology means all the newest kinds of computer technologies used for archaeological investigations, data processing, modeling, archaeological and historical reconstruction and evident representation of their results. Since the time of Paul Reilly’s definition, the meaning of the term virtual transformed from imaginary to existing in our understanding. It looks curious, but maybe very soon, instead of virtual archaeology, it will be possible to say up-today archaeology.

Keywords

Virtual archaeology Definition Terminology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my colleagues who kindly discussed details of the article. The fruitful discussion on the topic was also provided by the grant support of the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project nos. 12-03-14006 and 13-21-01003).

References

  1. ABBYY Lingvo.Pro (2011) http://lingvopro.abbyyonline.com/ru/Search/en-ru/virtual. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  2. CAA (2011) Computer applications and quantitative methods in archaeology. http://caa.leidenuniv.nl. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  3. Evans TL, Daly P (2006) Digital archaeology: Bridging method and theory. Routledge, USAGoogle Scholar
  4. Forte M (2000) About virtual archaeology: disorders, cognitive interactions and virtuality. CAA’26. BAR Intern.s. Vol. 84:247–259Google Scholar
  5. Forte M, Guidazzoli F (1997) About virtual archaeology. Musées et hypermedia ICHIM 97, Paris. http://mosaic.infobyte.it/project/towardsa.html. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  6. Frishcer B, Dakouri-Hild A (2008) Beyond illustration: 2d and 3d digital technologies as tools for discovery in archaeology. In: Frischer B, Dakouri-Hild A (eds) BAR Intern.s. Vol.1805. Archaeopress, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Frischer B, Niccolucci F, Ryan N, Barceló J (2002) From CVR to CVRO. The past, present, and future of cultural virtual reality. In: Niccolucci F (ed) BAR Intern.s. Vol. 834. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp 7–18Google Scholar
  8. Hermon S, Sugimoto S, Mara H (2007) The London Charter and its applicability. VAST: International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Intelligent Cultural Heritage, Nov 2007Google Scholar
  9. International Charter of Virtual Archaeology (2010) International Forum of Virtual Archaeology http://www.arqueologiavirtual.com/carta/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Sevilla-Charter.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  10. Lévy P (1995) Qu’est-ce que le virtuel? La Découverte, ParisGoogle Scholar
  11. Lock G (2003) Using computers in archaeology: Towards virtual past. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. London Charter Initiative (2009) London Charter for the computer-based visualisation of cultural heritage. Draft 2.1. http://www.londoncharter.org/fileadmin/templates/main/docs/london_charter_2_1_en.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  13. Pujol-Tost L (2004) Archaeology, museums and virtual reality. Digithum. UOC. No. 6. http://www.uoc.edu/humfil/articles/eng/pujol0304/pujol0304.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  14. Pujol-Tost L (2007) Does virtual archaeology exist? Layers of perception. CAA’2007: 101-107Google Scholar
  15. Reilly P (1991) Towards a virtual archaeology. CAA’90. BAR Intern.s. Vol.565:133–139Google Scholar
  16. Reilly P, Rahtz S (2008) Archaeology and the information age: A global perspective. Archaeopress, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Slator BM, Clark JT, Landrum III J, Bergstrom A, Hawley J, Johnston E, Fisher S (2001) Teaching with immersive virtual archaeology. Proceedings of the 7th international conference on virtual systems and multimedia (VSMM’01) http://www.stanford.edu/dept/SUSE/projects/ireport/articles/3D/00969679.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  18. VAMCT (2013) Virtual archaeology, museums and cultural tourism. International Workshop. Delphi. http://vamct13.syros.aegean.gr/aims-scope.shtml. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  19. VAST (2011) International symposium on virtual reality, archaeology and cultural heritage. http://www.vast-conference.eu/. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  20. Virtual archaeology (2013) In: Hookk D (ed) St. Petersburg, The State Hermitage PublishersGoogle Scholar
  21. Virtual reality in archaeology (2000) In: Barceló JA, Forte M, Sanders DH (eds) BAR International Series Vol. 843. ArcheoPress, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Ware C (2004) Information visualization: Perception for design. Elsevier Science & Technology Books, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhai P (1998) Get real: A philosophical adventure in virtual reality. Rowman & Littlefield, MarylandGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The State Hermitage MuseumSaint-PetersburgRussian Federation

Personalised recommendations