Domestic cattle mobility in early farming villages in southern Africa: harvest profiles and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope analyses from Early Iron Age sites in the lower Thukela River Valley of South Africa

  • Elizabeth R. Arnold
  • Haskel J. Greenfield
  • Robert A. Creaser
Original Paper


Several researchers have suggested that Early Iron Age (i.e., first millennium ad) farmers in the mountainous valleys along the southeastern seaboard of southern Africa moved their livestock in a transhumant or seasonal fashion between grazing areas in order to take advantage of differentiation in availability of pasture. Until now, there have been no data to systematically test this hypothesis. This study presents new zooarchaeological and preliminary strontium isotope data from the Early Iron Age sites of Ndondondwane, Mamba I and Wosi in the lower Thukela River Valley of South Africa. Harvest profiles of domestic stock suggest that herds were present year-round in the valley bottom, despite the advantages of a transhumant pastoral system. In order to resolve the discrepancy between the harvest profiles and the expected mobility patterns, a pilot isotopic study collected modern baseline strontium data in an effort to establish the local valley signature. The isotopic signatures from the zooarchaeological cattle specimens from the three sites show variation between sites, which is indicative of both limited and variable patterns of mobility throughout the valley. In addition, the strontium data suggest that some cattle may have been moved through social and/or economic exchanges from outside the valley.


Transhumance Mobility Strontium isotope analysis Domestic animals Zooarchaeology South Africa Early Iron Age 


  1. Acocks JPH (1988) Veld types of South Africa. South Africa Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold E, Greenfield HJ (2004) A zooarchaeological perspective on the origins of vertical transhumant pastoralism and the colonization of marginal habitats in temperate southeastern Europe. In: Mondini M, Muñoz S, Winkler S (eds) Colonisation, migration and marginal areas: a zooarchaeological approach (Proceedings of the 9th ICAZ Conference, Durham 2002), Vol. 2nd edn. Oxbow Press, Oxford, pp 96–117Google Scholar
  3. Arnold ER, Greenfield HJ (2006) the origins of transhumant pastoralism in temperate southeastern europe: a zooarchaeological perspective from the central Balkans. BAR, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Balasse M, Bocherens H, Mariotti A, Ambrose SH (2001) Detection of dietary changes by intra-tooth carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis: an experimental study of dentine collagen of cattle (Bos taurus). J Archaeol Sci 28:235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balasse M, Ambrose SH, Smith AB, Price TD (2002) The seasonal mobility model for prehistoric herders in the South-western Cape of South Africa assessed by isotopic analysis of sheep tooth enamel. J Archaeol Sci 29:917–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balasse M, Smith AB, Ambrose SH, Leigh SR (2003) Determining sheep birth seasonality by analysis of tooth enamel oxygen isotope ratios: the late stone age of Kasteelberg (South Africa). J Archaeol Sci 30:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnard A (1992) Hunters and herders of Southern Africa: a comparative ethnography of Khoisan peoples. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barton ES (1983) The geochronology of the frontal zones of the Namaqua-Natal Mobile Belt. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of WitwatersrandGoogle Scholar
  9. Bentley RA, Knipper C (2005) Geographical patterns in biologically available strontium, carbon and oxygen isotope signatures in prehistoric SW Germany. Archaeometry 47:629–644Google Scholar
  10. Bentley RA, Price TD, Stephan E (2004) Determining the ‘local’ 87Sr/86Sr range for archaeological skeletons: a case study from Neolithic Europe. J Archaeol Sci 31:365–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beukes CF (2000) KwaGandaganda: an archaeozoological case study of the exploitation of animal resources during the Early Iron Age in KwaZulu-Natal. Unpublished MA dissertation, University of South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  12. Bocherens H, Mashkour M, Billiou D, Pellé E, Mariotti A (2001) A new approach to studying prehistoric herd management in arid areas: intra-tooth isotopic analysis of archaeological caprine from Iran. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes 332:67–74Google Scholar
  13. Brink ABA (1981) Engineering geology of southern Africa, vol 2. Building Publications, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown WAB, Christofferson DVM, Massler M, Weiss MB (1960) Postnatal tooth development in cattle. Am J Vet Res 21(80):7–34Google Scholar
  15. Buzon MR, Simonetti A, Creaser RA (2007) Migration in the Nile Valley during the New Kingdom period: a preliminary strontium isotope study. J Archaeol Sci 34:1391–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cable C (1984) A model for terminal Later Stone Age subsistence strategies in southern Natal. In: Hall M, Avery G, Avery DM, Wilson ML, Humphreys AJB (eds) Frontiers: Southern African archaeology today. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford, pp 167–181Google Scholar
  17. Dahl G, Hjort A (1976) Having herds: pastoral herd growth and household economy. Department of Social Anthropology, University of Stockholm, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  18. Daniel JBM (1973) A geographical study of pre-Shakan Zululand. South African Geographical Journal 55:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Du Toit AL (1931) The geology of the country surrounding Nkandhla, Natal. Geological Survey, Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  20. Du Toit AL (1954) The geology of South Africa. Olive and Boyd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Ericson JE (1985) Strontium isotope characterization in the study of prehistoric human ecology. J Hum Evol 14:504–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ericson JE (1989) Some problems and potentials of strontium isotope analysis for human and animal ecology. In: Rundel PW, Ehleringer JR, Nagy KA (eds) Stable isotopes in ecological research. Springer, New York, pp 252–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ezzo JA, Price TD, Johnson CM (1997) Analytical perspectives on prehistoric migration: a case study from east-central Arizona. J Archaeol Sci 24:447–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fowler KD, Greenfield HJ (2009) Unraveling settlement history at Ndondondwane, South Africa: a micro-chronological analysis. South Afr Humanit 21:345–393Google Scholar
  25. Fowler K, Fayekand DM, Middleton E (2011) Clay acquisition and processing strategies during the first millennium a.d. in the Thukela River Basin, South Africa: an ethnoarchaeological approach. Geoarchaeology 26(5):762–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fread ER (2007) Taphonomy and subsistence strategies at Ndondondwane, aA zooarchaeological perspective on an Early Iron Age homestead in the Thukela Valley, Republic of South Africa, Unpublished MA Thesis. University of Manitoba, WinnipegGoogle Scholar
  27. Geddes D (1982) Neolithic transhumance in the Mediterranean Pyrenees. World Archaeology 15:51–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gifford-Gonzales DP (2000) Animal disease challenges to the emergence of pastoralism in sub-Saharan Africa. Afr Archaeol Rev 17:95–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grant A (1975) The use of tooth wear as a guide to the age of domestic animals. In: Cunliffe B (ed) Excavations at Portchester Castle. Society of Antiquaries, London, pp 245–279Google Scholar
  30. Grant A (1982) The use of tooth wear as a guide to the age of domestic ungulates. In: Wilson B, Grigson C, Payne S (eds) Ageing and sexing animal bones from archaeological sites. British archaeological reports, British series 109. BAR, Oxford, pp 91–108Google Scholar
  31. Greenfield HJ (1988) The origins of milk and wool production in the Old World: a zooarchaeological perspective from the central Balkans. Curr Anthropol 29:573–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Greenfield HJ (1999) The origins of transhumant pastoralism in temperate southeastern Europe. In: Bartosiewicz L, Greenfield HJ (eds) Transhumant pastoralism in Southern Europe: recent perspectives from archaeology, history and ethnography. Archaeolingua Publishers (Academy of Sciences), Budapest, pp 15–36Google Scholar
  33. Greenfield HJ (2005) A reconsideration of the secondary products revolution: 20 years of research in the central Balkans. In: Mulville J, Outram A (eds) The zooarachaeology of milk and fats (Proceedings of the 9th ICAZ Conference, Durham 2002). Oxbow Press, Oxford, pp 14–31Google Scholar
  34. Greenfield, H. J. & L. O. van Schalkwyk (2003) Intra-settlement social and economic organisation of Early Iron Age farming communities in southern Africa: a view from Ndondondwane. Azania, 38Google Scholar
  35. Greenfield HJ, van Schalkwyk LO (2008) Early Iron Age regional settlement and demographic patterns along the eastern seaboard of South Africa: a view from the lower Thukela River valley. In: Badenhorst S, Mitchell P, Driver JC (eds) Animals and people: archaeozoological papers in honour of Ina Plug. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp 131–151Google Scholar
  36. Greenfield HJ, van Schalkwyk LO, Jongsma TL (2000) Surface and subsurface reconnaissance at Ndondondwane: preliminary results of the 1995–97 field seasons. Southern African Field, Archaeology, 9Google Scholar
  37. Greenfield HJ, Fowler KD, Van Schalkwyk LO (2005) Where are the gardens? Early Iron Age horticulture in the Thukela Valley of South Africa. World Archaeology 37:305–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grupe G, Price TD, Schroter P, Sollner F, Johnson CM, Beard BL (1997) Mobility of Bell Beaker people revealed by strontium isotope ratios of tooth and bone: a study of southern Bavarian skeletal remains. Appl Geochem 12:517–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hall M (1981) Settlement patterns in the Iron Age of Zululand: an ecological interpretation. BAR, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. Hall M (1986) The role of cattle in southern African agropastoral societies: more than bones alone can tell. South African Archaeological Society, Goodwin Series 5:83–87Google Scholar
  41. Hall M (1987) The changing past: farmers, kings and traders in Southern Africa, 200–1860. David Phillip, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  42. Hall M, Mack K (1983) The outline of an eighteenth-century economic system in south-east Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 91:163–194Google Scholar
  43. Herbert DG, Kilburn RN (2004) A field guide to the land snails and slugs of Eastern South Africa. Natal Museum, PietermaritzburgGoogle Scholar
  44. Hesse B (1982) Slaughter patterns and domestication: the beginnings of pastoralism in western Iran. Man 17:403–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hillson S (2005) Teeth. Cambridge manuals in archaeology, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  46. Hodell DA, Quinn RL, Brenner M, Kamenov G (2004) Spatial variation of strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) in the Maya region: a tool for tracking ancient human migration. J Archaeol Sci 31:585–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Holl AFC (1998) The dawn of African pastoralism. J Anthropol Archaeol 17:81–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hoppe KA, Koch PL, Carlson RW, Webb SD (1999) Tracking mammoths and mastedons: reconstruction of migratory behaviour using strontium isotopes. Geology 27:439–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huffman TN (1993) Broederstroom and the central cattle pattern. South African Journal of Science 89:220–226Google Scholar
  50. Huffman TN (2007) Handbook to the Iron Age: the archaeology of pre-Colonial farming societies in Southern Africa. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, PietermaritzbergGoogle Scholar
  51. Kuper A (1982) Wives for cattle. Bridewealth and marriage in Southern Africa. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, Boston, Melbourne and HenleyGoogle Scholar
  52. Lee-Thorp JA, Manning L, Sponheimer M (1997) Problems and prospects for carbon isotope analysis of very small samples of tooth enamel. Bull Soc Géol Fr 168:767–773Google Scholar
  53. Legge AJ (1989) Milking the evidence. In: Milles A, Williams D, Gardner N (eds) The beginnings of agriculture, vol 496. British Archaeological Reports International Series, Oxford, pp 217–242Google Scholar
  54. Loubser JHN (1993) Ndondondwane: the significance of features and finds from a ninth century site on the lower Thukela River; Natal. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 5:109–151Google Scholar
  55. Loubser JHN (1998) Ndondondwane and the archaeology of deeply buried deposits conducted under unusual conditions: a response to van Schalkwyk et al. Southern African Field Archaeology 7:111–114Google Scholar
  56. Low AB, Rebelo AG (eds) (1996) Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. A companion to the vegetation map of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  57. Maggs T (1980) The Iron Age sequence south of the Vaal and Pongola Rivers: some historical implications. J Afr Hist 21:1–15Google Scholar
  58. Maggs TO (1984a) The Iron Age south of the Zambezi. In: Klein R (ed) Southern African prehistory and paleoenvironments. Balken, Rotterdam, pp 329–360Google Scholar
  59. Maggs TO (1984b) Ndondondwane; a preliminary report on an Early Iron Age site on the lower Tugela River. Annals of the Natal Museum 26:71–94Google Scholar
  60. Maggs TO (1989) The Iron Age farming communities. In: Duminy A, Guest B (eds) Natal and Zululand from earliest times to 1910: a new history. University of Natal Press and Shuter & Shooter, Pietermaritzburg, pp 28–48Google Scholar
  61. Maggs TO, Ward V (1984) Early Iron Age sites in the Muden area of Natal. Annals of the Natal Museum 26:95–138Google Scholar
  62. Marshall FB, Hildebrand E (2002) Cattle before crops: the beginnings of food production in Africa. Journal of World Prehistory 16:99–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mason R (1986) Origins of black people of Johannesburg and the southern western central Transvaal AD 350–1880. Occasional Paper 16. University of Witswatersrand Archaeological Research Unit, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  64. Mazel AD (1989a) People making history: the last ten thousand years of hunter–gatherer communities in the Thukela Basin. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 1:1–168Google Scholar
  65. Mazel AD (1989b) The Stone Age peoples of Natal. In: Duminy A, Guest B (eds) In Natal and Zululand: from earliest times to 1910. A new history. University of Natal Press and Shuter & Shooter, PietermaritzburgGoogle Scholar
  66. Mitchell P (2002) The archaeology of Southern Africa. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  67. Mitchell RL (1955) Trace elements in soil. In: Bear FE (ed) Trace elements in soil. Reinhold, New York, pp 253–285Google Scholar
  68. Mitchell RL (1957) The trace element content of plants. Research 10:357–362Google Scholar
  69. Mucina L, Rutherford MC (2006) The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. South African National Biodiversity Institute, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  70. Niamir-Fuller MN, Turner (1999) A review of recent literature on pastoralism and transhumance in Africa. In: Niamir-Fuller M (ed) Managing mobility in African Rangelands: the legitimization of transhumance. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  71. Nisbet R, Maggi R, Barker G (eds) (1991) Archeologia Della Pastorizia Nell'Europa Meridionale. Rivista di Studi Liguri 56–57 (1–4)Google Scholar
  72. O’Farrell PJ, Donaldson JS, Hoffman MT (2007) The influence of ecosystem goods and services on livestock management practices on the Bokkeveld plateau, South Africa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 122:312–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Patrick B (2011) Environmental impact assessment for the proposed Thukela hydro electric power scheme, Thukela River. KwaZulu-Natal. Vegetation Assessment. Mtunzini, ACER (Africa) Environmental Management ConsultantsGoogle Scholar
  74. Payne S (1973) Kill-off patterns in sheep and goats: the mandibles from Aşvan Kale. Anatol Stud 23:281–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Plug I (1996) Domestic animals during the Early Iron Age in southern Africa. In: Pwiti G, Soper R (eds) Aspects of African archaeology. Papers from the 10th congress of the PanAfrican association for prehistory and related studies. University of Zimbabwe Press, Harare, pp 515–520Google Scholar
  76. Price TD (2000) Europe's first farmers. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Price TD, Grupe G, Schrörter P (1994a) Reconstruction of migration patterns in Bell Beaker period by stable strontium isotope analysis. Appl Geochem 9:413–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Price TD, Johnson CM, Ezzo JA, Ericson J, Burton JH (1994b) Residential mobility in the prehistoric southwest United States: a preliminary study using strontium isotope analysis. J Archaeol Sci 21:315–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Price TD, Burton JH, Bentley RA (2002) The characterization of biologically available strontium isotope ratios for the study of prehistoric migration. Archaeometry 44(1):117–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Prins FE (1995) Climate, vegetation and early agricultural communities in Natal and Transkei. Azania 29(30):179–186Google Scholar
  81. Redding R (1981) Decision making in subsistence herding of sheep and goats in the Middle East. University of Michigan, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  82. Redding R (1984) Theoretical determinants of a herder's decisions modeling variation in the sheep/goat ratio. In: Clutton-Brock J, Grigson C (eds) Animals and archaeology 3: early herders and their flocks. British archaeological reports, international series 202. BAR, Oxford, pp 223–242Google Scholar
  83. Ryan K, Karega-Munene SM, Kahinju SM, Kunoni PN (2000) Ethnographic perspectives on cattle management in semi-arid environments: a case study from Maasailand. In: Blench RM, MacDonald KC (eds) The origins and development of African livestock: archaeology, genetics, linguistics and ethnography. University College London Press, London, pp 463–477Google Scholar
  84. Sansom B (1974) Traditional economic systems. In: Hammond-Tooke WD (ed) The Bantu-speaking peoples of Southern Africa. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, pp 135–176Google Scholar
  85. Sealy JC (1989a) Reconstruction of Later Stone Age diets in the Southwestern Cape, South Africa: evaluation and application of five isotopic trace element techniques. PhD Thesis. Cape Town: University of Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  86. Sealy JC (1989b) The use of chemical techniques for reconstructing prehistoric diets: a case study in the southwestern Cape. South African Archaeological Society, Goodwin Series 6:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sealy JC, van der Merwe NJ, Sillen A, Kruger FJ, Krueger HW (1991) 87Sr/86Sr as dietary indicator in modern and archaeological bone. J Archaeol Sci 18:399–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shulze RE (1982) Agrohydrology and climatology of Natal. Water Research Commission, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  89. Sillen A, Hall G, Armstrong R (1995) Strontium calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) and strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of Australopithecus robustus and Homo sp. from Swartkrans. J Hum Evol 28:277–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sillen A, Hall G, Richardson A (1998) 87Sr/86Sr ratios in modern and fossil foodwebs of the Sterkfontein Valley: implications for early hominid habitat preference. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 62:2463–2473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Slovak NM, Paytan A, Wiegand BA (2009) Reconstructing middle horizon mobility patterns on the coast of Peru through strontium isotope analysis. J Archaeol Sci 36(1):157–165Google Scholar
  92. Smith AB (1992a) Origins and spread of pastoralism in Africa. Annu Rev Anthropol 21:125–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith AB (1992b) Pastoralism in Africa: origins and development ecology. Ohio University Press, Athens, OHGoogle Scholar
  94. Smith RMH, Eriksson PG, Botha WJ (1999) A review of the stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of the Karoo-aged basins of Southern Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 16:143–169Google Scholar
  95. Sterud EL (1978) Prehistoric populations of the Dinaric Alps: an investigation of interregional interaction. In: Redman CL et al (eds) Social archaeology: beyond subsistence and dating. Academic Press, New York, pp 381–408Google Scholar
  96. Tainton NM (1999) The ecology of the main grazing lands in South Africa. In: Tainton NM (ed) Veld management in South Africa. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, pp 23–50Google Scholar
  97. Tainton NM, Bransby DI, De P, Booysen V (1979) Common veld and pasture grasses of Natal. Shuter & Shooter, PietermartizburgGoogle Scholar
  98. van der Eyk JJ, MacVicar CN, De Villiers JM (1969.) Soils of the Tugela Basin: a study in subtropical Africa. Natal Town and Regional Planning Reports, vol. 15. .Pietermaritzberg, Natal, SA: The Town and Regional Planning CommissionGoogle Scholar
  99. Van der Merwe NJ, Lee-Thorp JA, Thackeray JF, Hall-Martin A, Kruger FJ, Coetzee H, Bell RHV, Lindeque M (1990) Source-area determination of elephant ivory by isotopic analysis. Nature 346:744–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. van Schalkwyk LO 1992. Society in transformation: Early Iron Age mixed-farming communities in the Lower Thukela Basin, Zululand. Unpublished M.A. thesis. Cape Town: Department of Archaeology, University of Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  101. Van Schalkwyk L (1994a) Mamba confluence—a preliminary report on an Early Iron Age industrial centre in the lower Thukela Basin, Zululand. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 6:119–152Google Scholar
  102. Van Schalkwyk L (1994b) Wosi, an Early Iron Age agriculturist village in the lower Thukela Basin, Zululand. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 6:65–117Google Scholar
  103. Van Schalkwyk L (1995) Settlement shifts and socio-economic transformations in early agriculturist communities in the lower Thukela Basin. Azania 29/30:187–198Google Scholar
  104. van Schalkwyk LO, Greenfield HJ, Jongsma TL (1997) Ndondondwane: preliminary report on the 1995 survey and excavations. Southern African Field Archaeology 6:61–79Google Scholar
  105. Vigne J-D, Helmer D (2007) Was milk a "secondary product" in the Old World Neolithisation process? Its role in the domestication of cattle, sheep and goats. Anthropozoologica 42:9–40Google Scholar
  106. Voigt EA, Peters J (1994a) The faunal assemblage from the Early Iron Age site of Mamba 1 in the Thukela Valley. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 6:145–152Google Scholar
  107. Voigt EA, Peters J (1994b) The faunal assemblage from Wosi in the Thukela Valley. Natal Museum Journal of Humanitites 6:105–117Google Scholar
  108. Voigt EA, von den Driesch A (1984) Preliminary report on the faunal assemblages from Ndondondwane, Natal. Annals of the Natal Museum 26:95–104Google Scholar
  109. Whitelaw G (1993) Customs and settlement patterns in the first millennium ad: evidence from Nanda, an Early Iron Age site in the Mngeni Valley, Natal. Natal Musem Journal of Humanities 5:47–81Google Scholar
  110. Whitelaw G (1994) Toward an Early Iron Age worldview: some ideas from KwaZulu-Natal. Azania 29(30):37–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Whitelaw G (2005) Comment on Greenfield and Van Schalkwyk's article on Ndondondwane, Azania, 2003. Azania 40:122–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Whitelaw G, Moon M (1996) The ceramics and distribution of pioneer agriculturalists in KwaZulu-Natal. Natal Museum Journal of Humanitites 8:53–79Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth R. Arnold
    • 1
  • Haskel J. Greenfield
    • 2
  • Robert A. Creaser
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyGrand Valley State UniversityAllendaleUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations