World Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 4–12 | Cite as

Significance of continuous rotavirus and norovirus surveillance in Indonesia

  • Mohamad Saifudin HakimEmail author
  • Hera Nirwati
  • Abu Tholib Aman
  • Yati Soenarto
  • Qiuwei Pan
Review Article



Diarrhea significantly contributes to the global burden of diseases, particularly in developing countries. Rotavirus and norovirus are the most dominant viral agents responsible for diarrheal disease globally. The aim of this review was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of rotavirus and norovirus study in Indonesia.

Data sources

Articles about rotavirus and norovirus surveillance in Indonesia were collected from databases, including PubMed and Google Scholar. Manual searching was performed to identify additional studies. Furthermore, relevant articles about norovirus diseases were included.


A national surveillance of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis has been conducted for years, resulting in substantial evidence about the high burden of the diseases in Indonesia. In contrast, norovirus infection received relatively lower attention and very limited data are available about the incidence and circulating genotypes. Norovirus causes sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis globally. It is also emerging as a health problem in immunocompromised individuals. During post-rotavirus vaccination era, norovirus potentially emerges as the most frequent cause of diarrheal diseases.


Our review identifies knowledge gaps in Indonesia about the burden of norovirus diseases and the circulating genotypes. Therefore, there is a pressing need to conduct national surveillance to raise awareness of the community and national health authority about the actual burden of norovirus disease in Indonesia. Continuing rotavirus surveillance is also important to assess vaccine effectiveness and to continue tracking any substantial changes of circulating rotavirus genotypes.


Diarrhea Rotavirus Norovirus Indonesia Surveillance 



The authors thank Noviarina Kurniawati, Risky Oktriani, and Deanna Camell for critical reading of this manuscript.

Author contributions

HMS contributed to conception and design, article searching, acquisition of data and drafting the manuscript; NH, AAT and SY contributed to critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content; PQ contributed to conception and design, study supervision and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. All the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.


The Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP) for funding Ph.D. fellowship to Mohamad S. Hakim.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

Not needed.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamad Saifudin Hakim
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hera Nirwati
    • 2
  • Abu Tholib Aman
    • 2
  • Yati Soenarto
    • 3
  • Qiuwei Pan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyErasmus MC-University Medical Center and Postgraduate School Molecular MedicineRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of MedicineUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Child Health, Faculty of MedicineUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

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