World Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 101–105 | Cite as

Clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginitis in girls: a current approach and review of the literature

  • İlke Beyitler
  • Salih Kavukcu
Review Article



Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in children and young girls. Some of the factors which cause vulvovaginitis include hypoestrogenism, the anatomical proximity of rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa.

Data sources

We made a literature search with Pubmed, Medline and Cochrane database from January 2002 to May 2015 in English language using the key words vulvovaginitis, children, clinical, diagnosis and treatment.


Vulvovaginitis in girls is usually caused by non-specific factors and hygiene measures, bioyoghurt and avoidance of chemical irritants are generally useful. Weight control if necessary and prevention of voiding dysfunction are effective. Vaginal flora is important in girls and results should be interpreted with clinical features to decide whether an isolated microorganism is part of the normal microflora or is the cause of symptomatic vulvovaginitis. Specific treatment is generally considered in case of a detected pathogen microorganism. Isolation of a sexually transmitted organism requires further investigation. Persistent disease may not always indicate a foreign body but it must be taken into account. Girls and parents are encouraged psychologically in all steps of evaluation, diagnosis and treatment. Probiotics, nanotechnology and petroleum jelly are other important treatment options used in vulvovaginitis.


In this review, we present current approach to the presentation and management of vulvovaginitis in childhood. This disorder requires a comprehensive evaluation in all steps of diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment.

Key words

children diagnosis treatment vulvovaginitis 


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Copyright information

© Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsNear East University HospitalNicosiaNorth Cyprus
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, Division of NephrologyNear East University HospitalNicosiaNorth Cyprus

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