World Journal of Pediatrics

, 7:331

Twelve-year prevalence of common neonatal congenital malformations in Zhejiang Province, China

  • Ge Sun
  • Zhe-Ming Xu
  • Jian-Feng Liang
  • Lin Li
  • Da-Xing Tang
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12519-011-0328-y

Cite this article as:
Sun, G., Xu, ZM., Liang, JF. et al. World J Pediatr (2011) 7: 331. doi:10.1007/s12519-011-0328-y



One of the challenges that pediatricians face when examining birth defects is to understand the trends in its occurrence and provide clues to etiology. This study was undertaken to retrospectively assess the prevalence of 10 common neonatal congenital malformations by reviewing a database of all deliveries from 28 weeks up until 7 days of birth from January 1998 to December 2009 in Zhejiang Province, China.


Ten common neonatal congenital malformations were selected for analysis. The incidence and the Cochran-Armitage Trend were assessed via SAS9.2. A P value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Of 83 888 perinatals, 374 (4.46‰) suffered from congenital heart diseases (CHD), 77 (0.92‰) from congenital hydrocephalus, 32 (0.38‰) from intestinal atresia/stenosis, 36 (0.43‰) from anorectal malformations, 149 (1.78‰) from kidney malformations, 139 (3.31‰) from hypospadias (male), 178 (2.12‰) from orofacial clefts (OFC), 188 (2.24‰) from polydactyly, 62 (0.74‰) from syndactyly, and 269 (3.21‰) from accessory auricle anomaly. Their trend of prevalence varied as follows: CHD, P=0.0026; hydrocephalus, P=0.0042; intestinal atresia/stenosis, P=0.0103; anorectal malformations, P=0.4332; kidney malformations, P<0.0001; hypospadias, P=0.0021; OFC, P=0.005; polydactyly, P=0.0867; syndactyly, P=0.1941; and accessory auricle anomaly, P=0.0011. The upward trend was as follows: CHD (P=0.0026), intestinal atresia/stenosis (P=0.0103), kidney malformations (P<0.0001), hypospadias (P=0.0021), OFC (P=0.005), and accessory auricle anomaly (P=0.0011). The incidence of hydrocephalus (P=0.0042) showed a downward trend. No statistical significant trend was found in anorectal malformations (P=0.4332), polydactyly (P=0.0867) and syndactyly (P=0.1941).


The incidences of CHD, intestinal atresia/stenosis, kidney malformations, hypospadias, OFC, and accessory auricle anomaly have increased in the last 12 years, but the incidences of anorectal malformations, polydactyly and syndactyly remain stable. The incidence of hydrocephalus shows a downward trend.

Key words

congenital malformation incidence neonate 

Copyright information

© Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ge Sun
    • 1
  • Zhe-Ming Xu
    • 2
  • Jian-Feng Liang
    • 3
  • Lin Li
    • 4
  • Da-Xing Tang
    • 2
  1. 1.The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Women’s HospitalZhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Urology, Children’s HospitalZhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of Information, Children’s HospitalZhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Department of Women’s Health Care, Women’s HospitalZhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouChina

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