Mapping spatial distribution of pollutants in groundwater of a tropical area of India using remote sensing and GIS

Abstract

Fresh and clean water is a vital commodity of need for the well-being of human societies, and damage of these aquifers is one of the most serious environmental problems of the past century. The regular monitoring and management of groundwater resources is very important for the sustainable development. The present study monitors the groundwater quality relation to the land use/land cover (LULC) using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Physico-chemical analysis data of groundwater samples collected at different locations forms the attribute database for the study. LULC categories, such as agricultural and built-up area, associated with human activities, incorporated maximum change in groundwater quality. In this study, weighting analysis of Water Quality Index (WQI) and Land Cover Index (LCI) have been performed to map the Suitability Index (SI) of water for drinking purpose in the area. Spatial interpolation technique was used for generation of pollution potentiality map of the area. Cluster analysis was performed for delineating and grouping the similar pollution causing area. The overall view of the results indicates that most of the study area exhibited very low SI for the drinking purpose due to very high groundwater pollution.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank the chief editor and anonymous reviewers for their illuminating comments. Authors are also grateful to the Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, India, for providing the necessary data and funding this project. The first author is grateful to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India, for providing the Junior Research Fellowship (JRF). We are also grateful to the dean of the School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India, for providing us all the necessary laboratory facilities.

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Correspondence to Prashant K. Srivastava.

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Srivastava, P.K., Gupta, M. & Mukherjee, S. Mapping spatial distribution of pollutants in groundwater of a tropical area of India using remote sensing and GIS. Appl Geomat 4, 21–32 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12518-011-0072-y

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Keywords

  • Land cover index
  • Suitability index
  • Water quality index
  • Cluster analysis
  • Spatial interpolation