Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on rainfall anomalies in Central Java, Indonesia

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Arabian Journal of Geosciences Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global climate phenomenon recognised for its effects on regional climates and irregularities in climate variability worldwide. In this article, the impact of ENSO on rainfall anomalies in Central Java, Indonesia, was investigated from 1990 to 2019. The Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) was used to determine the ENSO phase, and rainfall estimates by the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) and rainfall records from several meteorological stations were used to identify the anomalies. The anomalies were explained in relation to the degree of strength of El Niño and La Niña events. The results showed that strong El Niño caused a decrease in annual rainfall intensities to the entire region, particularly in the mountainous area in the western part (Pemalang, Pekalongan, Purbalingga, Banjarnegara) and northeast part (Jepara, Kudus, Pati). The decrease in annual rainfall reached 1300 mm during strong El Niño. The moderate and weak El Niño also affect those areas, while the mountainous area in the west part and southwest part is not affected. The moderate and weak El Niño contributes to decreasing rainfall of up to 900 mm, with notable differences in the affected area. Strong La Niña affects the entire study area, with increasing annual rainfall up to 1700 mm, while moderate and weak La Niña less affects the region, and a notable difference was not identified. The result also shows that the spatial distribution of this decrease in rainfall is across the northern regions and became increasingly less towards the south during strong El Niño. Conversely, strong La Niña increased the rainfall intensity, starting from the south and weakening northward. The effect enhanced significantly with La Niña’s strength, especially on the southern coast of the study area.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

(Source: Data Analysis, 2021)

Fig. 4

(Source: Data Analysis, 2021)

Fig. 5

(Source: Data Analysis, 2021)

Fig. 6

(Source: Data Analysis, 2021)

Fig. 7

(Source: Data Analysis, 2021)

Fig. 8

(Source: Data Analysis, 2021)

Fig. 9

(Source: Data Analysis, 2021)

Fig. 10

(Source: Data Analysis, 2021)

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abdurahman, Setiawan AM (2016) Validation of estimates of various rainfall time scales for satellite products for diverse topography in North Kalimantan Province (in Bahasa Indonesia). Proceeding of Seminar Nasional Penginderaan Jauh, 373–381.

  • Aldrian E (2003) Simulations of Indonesian rainfall with a hierarchy of climate models. Dissertation, Staats-und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg Carl von Ossietzky.

  • Amalo LF, Hidayat R, Sulma S (2018) Analysis of agricultural drought in east Java using vegetation health index. Agrivita Journal of Agricultural Science 40:63–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • As-syakur AR (2010) Spatial pattern of the influence of La Niña events on the 1998/1999 rainfall in Indonesia; observations with TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis (TMPA)-3B43 products (in Bahasa Indonesia). Proceeding of Pertem. Ilm. Tah. MAPIN XVII Bandung.

  • Chung CTY, Power SB (2014) Precipitation response to La Niña and global warming in the Indo-Pacific. Clim Dyn 43:3293–3307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2105-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haylock M, McBride J (2001) Spatial coherence and predictability of Indonesian wet season rainfall. J Clim 14:3882–3887

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hendon HH (2003) Indonesian rainfall variability: impacts of ENSO and local air–sea interaction. J Clim 16:1775–1790

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hidayat AM, Efendi U, Agustina L, Winarso PA (2018) Correlation of the Niño 3.4 index and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) with rainfall variations in Semarang (in Bahasa Indonesia). Journal of Sains Teknologi Modifikasi Cuaca 19:75–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Indonesian Ministry of Environment (2007) Indonesia country report: climate variability and climate change, and their implication. Ministry of Environment Republic of Indonesia.

  • Katsanos D, Retalis A, Michaelides S (2016) Validation of a high-resolution precipitation database (CHIRPS) over Cyprus for a 30-year period. Atmos Res 169:459–464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kurniadi H, Aprilia E, Utomo JB, Kurniawan A, Safril A (2018) Comparison of IDW and Spline method in rainfall interpolation (in Bahasa Indonesia). Proceeding of GEOTIK, 213–220.

  • Lenderink G, Buishand A, van-Deursen W, (2007) Estimates of future discharges of the river Rhine using two scenario methodologies: direct versus delta approach. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 11:1145–1159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mamenun, Pawitan H, Sopaheluwakan A (2014) Validation and correction of TRMM satellite data on three rain patterns in Indonesia. Jurnal Meteorologi Dan Geofisika 15:13–23. https://doi.org/10.31172/jmg.v15i1.169

  • Misnawati M, Boer R, June T, Faqih A (2018) Comparison of bias correction methodologies for CHIRPS rainfall data (in Bahasa Indonesia). Limnotek Perairan Darat Tropis Di Indonesia 25:18–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Naylor RL, Battisti DS, Vimont DJ, Falcon WP, Burke MB (2007) Assessing risks of climate variability and climate change for Indonesian rice agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:7752–7757. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0701825104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nurrohmah H (2017) Meteorological drought study using standardized precipitation index (SPI) in Central Java Province (in Bahasa Indonesia). Geomedia, 15:1–15, https://doi.org/10.21831/gm.v15i1.16230

  • Prasetyo Y, Nabilah F (2017) Pattern analysis of el nino and la nina phenomenon based on sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall intensity using oceanic nino index (ONI) in West Java area. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 98:012041. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/98/1/012041

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Qothrunada DT, Risnayah S (2020) A climatological review of rainy events in the dry season on the first 10 days of September 2020 in Southeast Sulawesi (in Bahasa Indonesia). J Widya Climago 2:38–48

    Google Scholar 

  • Sekaranom AB, Nurjani E, Hadi MP, Marfai MA (2018) Comparison of TRMM precipitation satellite data over Central Java Region - Indonesia. Quaest Geogr 37:97–114. https://doi.org/10.2478/quageo-2018-0028

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sekaranom AB, Nurjani E, Harini R, Muttaqin AS (2020) Simulation of daily rainfall data using articulated weather generator model for seasonal prediction of ENSO-affected zones in Indonesia. Indones J Geogr 52:143–153

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sekaranom AB, Nurjani E, Nucifera F (2021a) Agricultural climate change adaptation in Kebumen, Central Java. Indonesia Sustainability 13:7069

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sekaranom AB, Nurjani E, Wibowo SB, Masunaga H (2021b) Characterizing ice-scattering homogeneity in TRMM microwave imagers and its influence on oceanic rain-rate estimation bias of TRMM precipitation radar. Atmosphere 12:1377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trenberth KE, Caron JM (2000) The Southern Oscillation revisited: sea level pressures, surface temperatures, and precipitation. J Clim 13:4358–4365

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ummenhofer CC, D’Arrigo RD, Anchukaitis KJ, Buckley BM, Cook ER (2013) Links between Indo-Pacific climate variability and drought in the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas. Clim Dyn 40:1319–1334

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This research is supported by grants from “Hibah Rekognisi Tugas Akhir” by Universitas Gadjah Mada—Indonesia with contract number: 3550/UN1.P.III/Dit-Lit/PT.01.05/2022, contract date: May 20th, 2022, and principal investigator: Dr. Sc. Andung Bayu Sekaranom., M.Sc.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by Anugrah Jorgi Firmansyah. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Anugrah Jorgi Firmansyah, and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andung Bayu Sekaranom.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Zhihua Zhang

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Firmansyah, A.J., Nurjani, E. & Sekaranom, A.B. Effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on rainfall anomalies in Central Java, Indonesia. Arab J Geosci 15, 1746 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-11016-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-11016-2

Keywords

Navigation