Skip to main content

Spatiotemporal evaluation of drought characteristics in south Bihar region using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

Abstract

The spatial and temporal analysis of drought and its characteristics have been evaluated in the south Bihar region. For the above-said purpose, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has been computed for four different timescales of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months to reflect the meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and groundwater drought conditions, respectively. The drought events have been analyzed for three different grades of severity as per the drought persistence in the region. The probability of occurrence of agriculture drought is found to be high, with an average frequency of 1.91, followed by the hydrological drought (once in 2.51 years), groundwater drought (once in 4.35 years), and meteorological drought (once in 8.12 years) in the region. The problem is more pronounced in the southern region of the study area that necessitates the introduction of management practices, including micro-irrigation systems, to ensure the optimum and efficient utilization of water resources. The combination of SPI and GIS played a significant role in evaluating the drought conditions. Therefore, the findings of this study will be of immense help to the policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders for preparing drought proof strategies in the study area.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15

References

  • Angelidis P, Maris F, Kotsovinos N (2012) Computation of drought index, SPI with alternative distribution functions. Water Resour Manag 26:2453–2473

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • BIHAR FO (2008) Bihar’s agriculture development: Opportunities & challenges

  • Calow RC, Robins NS, MacDonald AM, MacDonald DM, Gibbs BR, Orpen WR, Mtembezeka P, Andrews AJ, Appiah SO (1997) Groundwater management in drought-prone areas of Africa. Int J Water Resour D 13:241–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Calow RC, MacDonald AM, Nicol AL, Robins NS (2010) Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access and demand. GroundWater. 48:246–256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carney D (ed) (1998) Sustainable rural livelihoods: What contribution can we make? London: Department for International Development, p 122

  • Department of Agriculture, Bihar (2014) Statistics. http://krishi.bih.nic.in/Statistics.html

  • Dracup JA, Lee KS, Paulson EG (1980) The definition of droughts. Water Resour Res 16(2):297–302

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duttaa D, Kundub A, Patel NR, Saha SK, Siddiquida AR (2015) Assessment of agricultural drought in Rajasthan (India) using remote sensing derived Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Egyptian J Remote Sens Space Sci 18:53–63

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Edwards DC, McKee TB (1997) Characteristics of 20th century drought in the United States at multiple time scales. Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. Climatology Report, No. 97-2

  • Fahad S, Sönmez O, Saud S, Wang D, Wu C, Adnan M, Turan V (2021a) Plant growth regulators for climate-smart agriculture (1st ed.). CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003109013

  • Fahad S, Sönmez O, Saud S, Wang D, Wu C, Adnan M, Turan V (Eds.). (2021b) Sustainable Soil and Land Management and Climate Change (1st ed.). CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003108894

  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2015). Report on the Impact of Disasters on Agriculture and Food Security. No. 76

  • Ghosh T, Mukhopadhya A (2014) Natural hazard zonation of Bihar (India) using geoinformatics: a schematic approach. Springer, 13, 93

  • Guide SU (2012) World Meteorological Organization. Svoboda M, Hayes M, Wood D (WMO-No. 1090), Geneva, Switzerland

  • Guttman NB (1994) On the sensitivity of sample L moments to sample size. J Clim 7(6):1026–1029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guttman NB (1999) Accepting the Standardized Precipitation Index: a calculation algorithm. J Am Water Resour Assoc 35(2):311–322

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kar SK, Singh RM, Thomas T (2018a) Spatio-temporal evaluation of drought characteristics in the Dhasan basin. MAUSAM 69:589–598

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kar SK, Kumar S, Sankar M, Patra S, Singh RM, Shrimali SS, Ojasvi PR (2022) Process-based modelling of soil erosion: scope and limitation in the Indian context. Curr Sci 122(5):533–541

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kar SK, Thomas T, Singh RM (2016) Identification of drought prone areas and trend analysis of rainfall phenomenon in Dhasan Basin, Madhya Pradesh. Indian J Dryland Agri Res Dev 31:2

    Google Scholar 

  • Kar SK, Thomas T, Singh RM, Patel L (2018b) Integrated assessment of drought vulnerability using indicators for Dhasan basin in Bundelkhand region, Madhya Pradesh. Curr Sci 115:2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kishore A, Joshi PK, Pandey D (2014) Droughts, distress, and policies for drought proofing agriculture in Bihar, India (). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, IFPRI Discussion Paper. No. 01398

  • Kumar S, Kumar P, Barat A, Sinha AK, Sarthi P, Ranjan P, Singh KK (2019) Characteristics of observed meteorological drought and its linkage with low-level easterly wind over India. Pure Appl Geophys 176(6):2679–2696

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McKee TB, Doesken NJ, Kleist J (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scale. In Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, California. Boston. American Meteorological Society, 179–184

  • Minhas PS, Samra JS (2003) Quality assessment of water resources in the Indo- Gangetic Basin part of India. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India, Technical Bulletin No. 1/2003

  • Pai DS, Latha S,Rajeevan M, Sreejith OP, Satbhai NS, Mukhopadhyay B (2014) Development of a new high spatial resolution (0.25° X 0.25°) long period (1901-2010) daily gridded rainfall data set over India and its comparison with existing data sets over the region. Mausam, 65, 1

  • Roy LB, Bhushan M, Kumar R (2016) Climate change in Bihar, India: a case study. J Water Resour Hydraul Eng 5(3):140–146

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shah F, Ullah A,Ali U, Ali E, Saud S, Hakeem KR, Alharby H, Sabagh AEL, Barutcular C, Kamran M, Turan V, Adnan M, Arif M, Amanullah (2019) Drought tolerance in plants: role of phytohormones and scavenging system of ROS, in Plant Tolerance to Environmental Stress Role of Phytoprotectants, pp 103–114

  • Singh HP, Ti TC (eds) (2002) Report of the FAO-CRIDA expert group consultation on farming systems and best practices for drought-prone areas of Asia and the Pacific region. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture

  • Singh V, Kumar Kar S, Nema AK (2021) Drought severity assessment in south Bihar agro-climatic zone. Mausam 72(4):865–878

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sönmez O, Saud S, Wang D, Wu C, Adnan M, Turan V (2021a) Developing climate-resilient crops: improving global food security and safety.(.). CRC Press 1st ed. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003109037

  • Sönmez O, Saud S, Wang D, Wu C, Adnan M, Turan V (2021b) Climate change and plants: biodiversity, growth and interactions. CRC Press, 1st ed. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003108931

  • Svoboda M, Hayers M, Wood D (2012) World Meteorological Organization. Standardized Precipitation Index User Guide.WMO Geneva User Guide, No. 1090

  • Thomas T, Jaiswal RK, Nayak PC, Ghosh NC (2015) Comprehensive evaluation of the changing drought characteristics in Bundelkhand region of Central India. Meteorol Atmospheric Phys 127(2):163–182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thorpe W (2007) Crop-livestock interactions and livelihoods in the Gangetic Plains of Bihar, India (Vol. 12). ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD)

  • Tsakiris G, Vangelis H (2004) Towards a drought watch system based on spatial SPI. Water Resour Manag 18(1):1–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vincent K, Cull T (2010) A Household Social Vulnerability Index (HSVI) for evaluating adaptation projects in developing countries. In PEGNet conference, pp 02–03

  • World Bank, (2003). Report on financial rapid onset natural disaster losses in India: a risk assessment approach, World Bank Washington, DC Report, No. 26844-IN.

  • www.imdpune.gov.in/hydrology/Drought_Monitoring (n.d.)

  • Yaduvanshi A, Srivastava PK, Pandey AC (2015) Integrating TRMM and MODIS satellite with socio-economic vulnerability for monitoring drought risk over a tropical region of India. Phys Chem Earth, Parts A/B/C 83:14–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zarei AR, Eslamian S (2017) Trend assessment of precipitation and drought index (SPI) using parametric and non-parametric trend analysis methods (case study: arid regions of southern Iran). Int J Hydrol Sci Technology 7(1):12–38

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vikash Singh.

Ethics declarations

All the authors agree with the results and analysis of the research paper. All the work has been processed either at IIRS or BHU using the available resources.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Zhihua Zhang

Supplementary information

ESM 1

(DOCX 48 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Singh, V., Nema, A.K., Chouksey, A. et al. Spatiotemporal evaluation of drought characteristics in south Bihar region using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Arab J Geosci 15, 1231 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-10473-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-10473-z

Keywords

  • Geographical Information System (GIS)
  • Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)
  • Drought
  • India