Skip to main content
Log in

Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of Shakha Rash granitoid, Bulfat intrusive complex, northeastern Iraq

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Arabian Journal of Geosciences Aims and scope Submit manuscript

A Correction to this article was published on 02 September 2022

This article has been updated

Abstract

The Shakha Rash granitoid occurs in the middle of Bulfat igneous complex, which is an integral part of the Zagros suture zone (ZSZ), Kurdistan region of NE Iraq. Granitoid rocks are diorite, syenite, monzonite, tonalite, granodiorite, and granite which are the main variants that crop out in the area and are exposed as massive and dike. These massive rocks have different textures, equigranular with deformation, but dykes show porphyritic texture and no deformation which represents two stages of injection. The granitoids are compositionally similar to I and S-type granitoid rocks that originated from continental arcs. Their enrichment in the LREE relative to HREE is high (LaN/YbN) (35.66–266.07, ave. ~ 116.76 × chondrite) reflecting positive steep fractionated patterns probably due to the occurrence of a considerable amount of felsic minerals, with positive Eu anomalies suggested cumulus plagioclase. This feature together with a relative depletion of elements Nb, Pr, Nd, Zr, Hf, and Ti but Cs, Rb, Ba, K, U, and LREE enrichment confirms the derivation of granitoids from a crustal source region in a continental arc environment. Based on trace element discrimination and Th/Yb vs. Ta/Yb ratios, granitoid rocks are formed at the active continental margin.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
 Fig. 4
Fig. 5
 Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others

Change history

References

  • Al-Dosky NMJ (2007) Thermal metamorphism and tectonogenesis of meta- sedimentary at roof pendent of Bulfat Gabbro-Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Unpublished. M.Sc. thesis, Salahaddin University/Erbil, p 160

  • Al-Jubory ZJ (2011) Geochemical and petrogenetical study of the contact metamorphic metapelitic and metacarbonate rocks, Bulfat Complex, Qala-Deza, North East of Iraq, Unpub. M.Sc. thesis (in Arabic), University of Mosul, p 187

  • Al-Mehaidi HM (1975) Tertiary nappes in Mawat range, NE Iraq. J Geol Soc Iraq 7:31–44

    Google Scholar 

  • Alavi M (1994) Tectonics of the Zagros Orogenic Belt of Iran: new data and interpretations. Tectonophysics 229:211–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arculus RJ, Johnson RW (1981) Island arc magma sources: a geochemical assessment of the roles of slab-derived components and crustal contamination. Geochem J 15:109–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arculus RJ (1987) The significance of source versus process in the tectonic controls of magma genesis. J Volcanol Geoth Res 32:1–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aswad KJ (1999) Arc-continent collision in northeastern Iraq as evidenced by Mawat and Penjein Ophiolite Complexes. Rafidain Journal of Sciences 10:51–61

    Google Scholar 

  • Aswad KJ, Elias EM (1988) Petrogenesis, geochemistry and metamorphism of spilitized subvolcanic rocks of the Mawat Ophiolite Complex, NE Iraq. Ofioliti 13:95–109

    Google Scholar 

  • Aswad KJ, Al-Samman AHM, Aziz NRH (2013) The geochronology and petrogenesis of Walash volcanic rocks, Mawat nappes: constraints on the evolution of the northwestern Zagros suture zone, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Arab J Geosci 28:1–30

    Google Scholar 

  • Aswad KJ, Ali SA, Al-sheraefy RM, Nutman AP, Jones BG, Buckman S, Jourdand F (2016) 40Ar/39Ar hornblende and biotite geochronology of the Bulfat Igneous Complex, Zagros Suture Zone, NE Iraq: new insights on complexities of Paleogene arc magmatism during closure of the Neotethys Ocean. Lithos 266–267:406–413

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bertin EP (1978) Introduction to X-ray Spectrometric Analysis. Plenum, New York, p 485

  • Brown GC, Thorpe RS, Webb PC (1984) The geochemical characteristics of granitoids in contrasting arcs and comments on magma sources. J Geol Soc London 141:413–426

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buda G (1993) Igneous petrology of Bulfat area (NE Iraqi Zagros thrust zone). Acta Mineralogica Petrographica 34:21–39

    Google Scholar 

  • Buday T, Jassim SZ (1987) The regional geology of Iraq. In: Kassab IM, Abass MJ (eds) Tectonism, magmatism andmetamorphism, vol 2. Geological Survey and Mineral Investigation, Baghdad, p 351

  • Chappell BW, White AJR (1992) I- and S-type granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt. Trans Royal Soc Edinb Earth Sci 83:1–26

    Google Scholar 

  • DePaolo DJ, Perry FV, BaldridgeWS (1992) Crustal versus mantle sourcesof granitic magmas: a two-parameter model based on Nd isotopic studies. In Brown P.E. & Chappell B. W. eds. Second Hutton Symposium on the Origin of Granites andRelated Rocks, Geological Society of America Special paper 272, 439–446

  • Dwivedi SB, Theunuo K (2013) Petrology and geochemistry of metapelites and basic granulite from Sonapahar region of Shillong Meghalaya Gneissic Complex, North East India. J Geol Soc India 81:55–766

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fouad SFA (2015) Tectonic Map of Iraq, Scale 1:1000 000, 3rd edition, 2012. Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining 11(1):1–7. Papers of the Scientific Geological Conference. Part 2

  • Foley SF, Wheller GE (1990) Parallels in the origin of the geochemical signatures of island arc volcanic and continental potassic igneous rocks: the role of residual titanites. Chem Geol 85:1–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Green TH (1995) Significance of Nb/Ta as an indicator of geochemical processes in the crust-mantle system. Chem Geol 120:347–359

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gill R (2010) Igneous rocks and processes: a practical guide. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, p 428

  • Henderson P (1984) Rare earth element Geochemistry, (Developments in Geochemistry 2), Elsevier, p 510

  • Hoffmann JE, Münker C, Næraa T, Minik TR, Herwartz D, Garbe-Schönberg D, Svahnberg H (2011) Mechanisms of Archean crust formation inferred from high-precision HFSE systematics in TTGs. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75:4157–4178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Irvine TN, Baragar WRA (1971) A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Can J Earth Sci 8:523

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jassim SZ, Buday T (2006) Units of the unstable shelf and the Zagros Suture. In: Jassim SZ, Goff JC (eds) Geology of Iraq. Prague and Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic, Dolin, pp 71–83

    Google Scholar 

  • Jochum KP, Seufert HM, Spettel B, Palme H (1986) The solar-system abundances of Nb, Ta and Y, and the relative abundances of refractory lithophile elements in differentiated planetary bodies. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 50:1173–1183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karo NM (2015) Metamorphic evolution of the Northern Zagros Suture Zone (NZSZ). Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Potsdam, p 119

  • King PL, White AJR, Chappell BW, Allen CM (1997) Characterization and origin of aluminous A-type granites from the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia. J Petrol 38:371–391

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krauskopf KB, Bird DK (1995) Introduction to geochemistry, 3rd Edition. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, p 650

  • Maniar PD, Piccoli PM (1989) Tectonic discrimination of granitoids. Geol Soc Am Bull 101:635–643

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miyashiro A, Shido F (1975) Tholeiitic and Calc-alkaline series in relation behaviours of Ti, V, and Ni. Am J Sci 275:265–277

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Müller D, Franz L, Herzig PM, Hunt S (2001) Potassic igneous rocks from the vicinity of epithermal gold mineralization, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Lithos 57:163–186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nforba MEM, Chi SJ, Emmanuel TT, Kouske AP (2020) Structural and geochemical characterization of gold mineralized quartz veins in Belikombone gold prospect, Betare-oya Gold District, East Cameroon. Eng Sci 5(2):17–26. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.es.20200502.12

  • Le Maitre RW (ed.), Streckeisen A, Zanettin B, Le Bas MJ, Bonin B, Bateman P, Bellieni G, Dudek A, Efremova S, Keller J, Lameyre J, Sabine PA, Schmid R, Sørensen H, Wooley AR (2002) Igneous rocks: a classification and glossary of terms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 236

  • Liu H, Wang Y, Guo X, Fan W, Song J (2016) Late triassic post-collisional slab break-off along the Ailaoshan suture: insights from OIBlike amphibolites and associated felsic rocks. Int J Earth Sci 106:1359–1373

  • Pearce JA, Cann JR (1973) Tectonic setting of basic volcanic rocks determined using trace element analysis. Earth Plant Sci Lett 19:290–300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pearce JA (1983) Role of the sub-continental lithosphere in magma genesis at active continental margins. In: Hawkesworth, C.J. and Norry, M.J. (eds.), Continental Basalts and Mantle Xenoliths. Shiva Publ., Nantwich, UK, P.230–249

  • Pearce JA (1996) A user’s guide to basalt discrimination diagrams. In: Wyman, D.A., Ed., Trace Element Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks: Applications for Massive Sulphide Exploration, Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes.12 79–113

  • Pearce JA, Harris NBW, Tindle AG (1984) Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. J Petrol 25:956–983

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pearce JA, Parkison IJ (1993) Trace element models for mantle melting: application to volcanic arc petrogenesis . From Prichard, H. M., Alabaster, T., Harris, N. B. W. &Neary, C. R. (eds), 1993,Magmatic Processes and Plate Tectonics, Geological Society Special Publication No. 76, 373–403

  • Perfit MR, Brueckner H, Lawrence JR, Kay RW (1980) Trace element and isotopic variations in a zoned pluton and associated volcanic rocks, Unalaska Island, Alaska: a model for fractionation in the Aleutian Calcalkaline suite. Contrib Miner Petrol 73:69–87

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rollinson HR (2007) Early Earth systems: a geochemical approach. Blackwell, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Rose AW, Hawkes HE, Webb JS (1981) Geochemistry in mineral exploration, 2nd edn. Academic Press, London, p 655p

    Google Scholar 

  • Storkey AC, Hermann J, Hand M, Buick IS (2005) Using In situ trace-element determinations to monitor partial-melting processes in metabasites. J Petrol 46(6):1283–1308

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sylvester PJ (1998) Post-collisional strongly peraluminous granites. Lithos 45:29–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sun SS, McDonough WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In Saunders A. D. and Norry M. J. eds. Magmatism in ocean basins. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 42, 313–345

  • Taylor SR, McLennan SM (1985) The continental crust its composition and evolution. Blackwell, Oxford, p 312p

    Google Scholar 

  • Vatin-Perignon N, Oliver RA, Goemans P, Keller F, Briqueu L, Salas AG (1992) Geodynamic interpretations of plate subduction in the northernmost part of the central volcanic zone from the geochemical evolution and quantification of the crustal contamination of the Nevado Solimana volcano, southern Peru. Tectonophysics 205:329–355

  • Whalen JB, Currie KL, Chappell BW (1987) A-type granites: geochemical characteristics, discrimination and petrogenesis. Contrib Miner Petrol 95:407–419

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White WM (2013) Geochemistry. First Edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, p 660

  • Wilson M (2007) Igneous petrogenesis. Unwin Hyman, London, p 461

    Google Scholar 

  • Winter JD (2014) Principles of igneous and metamorphic petrology. Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh Gate, p 737

  • Zhong SH, Li SZ, Seltmann R, Lai ZQ, Zhou J (2021) The influence of fractionation of REE-enriched minerals on the zircon partition coefficients. Geo Fron 12(3):101094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2020.10.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohammed M. Zrary.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing of interests.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Domenico M. Doronzo

The original online version of this article was revised: Figure 12 is a duplicate of Fig. 5; the correct figure should have appeared as shown below.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zrary, M.M., Aqrawi, A.M. & Elias, E.M. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of Shakha Rash granitoid, Bulfat intrusive complex, northeastern Iraq. Arab J Geosci 15, 1375 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-10439-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-10439-1

Keywords

Navigation