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The Soma polymetallic hydrothermal Pb–Zn-Cu(± Mo ± Ag ± Au) mineralizations in the south of Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey: constraints from mineralogy, geochemistry, and fluid inclusion data

Abstract

The NW Anatolia of Turkey (especially the Biga Peninsula) hosts substantial skarn, porphyry Cu-Mo, and epithermal Pb–Zn ± Ag ± Au mineralizations. Of these, ore-forming processes of the Soma (Manisa) region in the southern part of the Biga Peninsula are distinguished. Two subtypes of mineralization zones were identified in the study area. The first subtype of mineralization is located nearby outward sections of Turkali pluton, resembling a porphyry type of mineralization with higher homogenization temperatures (197.5 to 280.1 ℃) with salinities 2.4 to 15.8 wt.% NaCl equivalents. The relatively high anomalies of Cu (up to 0.36% and Mo up to 634 ppm) with minor gold anomalies found in outward zones of Turkali pluton suggested the pluton likely to host higher-grade porphyry-type mineralization. The mineralogical assemblage of Turkali-related mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and molybdenite with minor sphalerite and also points out a granite-hosted porphyry-hydrothermal system. The second subtype of mineralization which is located around Yayladalı village can be described as a volcanic-hosted polymetallic Pb–Zn ± Au ± Ag hydrothermal-type mineralization. The main ore minerals are galena and sphalerite with supergene minerals including smithsonite and cerussite; therefore, this mineralization can be considered as a volcanic-hosted multiphase hydrothermal polymetallic deposition. The homogenization temperatures of 191.5 to 251.4 ℃ with salinities 5.86 to 18.0 wt. NaCl equivalents also support this conclusion. Both mineralization fields have high alteration index values, as expected. The volcanic-hosted mineralization zone has higher Ishikawa Alteration Index (AI) and chlorite carbonate pyrite index (CCPI) values, probably caused by the higher permeability of acidic volcanic rocks with lots of fractures.

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Some or all data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

This study is a part of the M.Sc. thesis of Muhammed Kabiru. It is financially supported by the Scientific Research Office of Istanbul Technical University (ITUBAP Project Code 39797). We would like to express our gratitude to the reviewers for helpful criticism and suggestions that improved the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Mustafa Kumral.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Responsible Editor: Murat Karakus

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Kumral, M., Kabiru, M., Aydogan, M.S. et al. The Soma polymetallic hydrothermal Pb–Zn-Cu(± Mo ± Ag ± Au) mineralizations in the south of Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey: constraints from mineralogy, geochemistry, and fluid inclusion data. Arab J Geosci 15, 1172 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-10412-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-10412-y

Keywords

  • Polymetallic mineralization
  • Soma
  • Biga peninsula
  • Fluid inclusions
  • Hydrothermal alteration
  • Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits