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Seismic retrofitting of rubble masonry tunnel: evaluation of steel fiber shotcrete or inner concrete lining alternatives

Abstract

The occurrence of high destructive earthquakes and their impact on masonry tunnels in recent years in Iran has led to the growth of concerns about the sustainable operation of these structures. Although many studies have been performed on the failure mechanism of structures during earthquake and seismic retrofitting of masonry bridges and buildings, less attention has been paid to the seismic retrofitting of masonry tunnels. Lack of seismic design of tunnels built before the 1990s in Iran and the occurrence of destructive earthquakes during the last 20 years (Bam 2003, Ezgeleh 2017) make the seismic retrofitting of old tunnels more visible in this area. The Ezgeleh earthquake, with a magnitude of 7.3, struck the Iran-Iraq border on November 12, 2017, causing damage to some masonry tunnels in the area, including the Kalikhan tunnel in Iran and the Darbandikhan tunnel in Iraq. In this study, two applied alternatives including steel fiber shotcrete and inner concrete lining for the rehabilitation and seismic retrofitting of Kalikhan tunnel were investigated. The results of numerical analyses showed that the use of inner concrete lining has a higher ability to control the imposed forces during earthquake.

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Correspondence to Ako Daraei.

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Daraei, A., Hama Ali, H.F., Qader, D.N. et al. Seismic retrofitting of rubble masonry tunnel: evaluation of steel fiber shotcrete or inner concrete lining alternatives. Arab J Geosci 15, 1074 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-10369-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-10369-y

Keywords

  • Seismic retrofitting
  • Rubble masonry
  • Steel fiber shotcrete
  • Inner concrete lining
  • Tunneling