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Appraisal of natural groundwater reserve using entropy-based model at the proximity of Deccan Trap Basalt and Gondwana Sandstone in a part of Central India

Abstract

Natural groundwater reserve is an essential key parameter in the budgeting of water resources and its management because rainfall is the primary source of groundwater reserve. Thus, this article deals with estimating natural groundwater recharge with the help of an entropy-based model adopted at the proximity of Deccan Trap Basalt and Gondwana Sandstone in a part of Central India. About 43 observation wells located (area: ~ 360 km2) in shallow aquifer revealing basaltic and sandstone formations under unconfined conditions showing spatial variability in natural recharge were considered. Transinformation, T(R,WT) among the rainfall (R) and groundwater table (WT) as well as marginal entropy, H(R), of the rainfall, was calculated at these wells and was used for assessing natural groundwater reserve. Results show that the estimated natural recharge varies from 6.72 to 32.80%, with an average of 22.89% of the SW monsoon period. The estimated groundwater recharge is having a good correlation among both the groundwater potential zones and recharge potential zones, which are obtained by applying the RS and GIS, and water level fluctuation with concerning rainfall, with the coefficients of r:0.88 and r:0.88, respectively. It has been found that groundwater reserves vary from 62.08 to 98.04 MCM, with an average of 76.22 MCM in the rainy season for the period of 2012–2019. The minimum reserve (~ 62.08 MCM) is estimated in the year 2014, whereas the maximum (~ 98.04 MCM) in the year 2013 during the monsoon periods. The estimated groundwater reserve could be utilized for the sustainable management of groundwater resources.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. VM Tiwari, Director of CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, for the permission to publish this article (Ref. No: NGRI/Lib/2020/Pub-112). The second author has partially done this research work under the DST-INSPIRE Fellowship (ref. no: IF160571, dated: June 7, 2017). The NRDMS-DST (GoI), New Delhi (Ref. No.:NRDMS/GRACE/8342/NC Mondal/2020(G), January 21, 2021), has also funded this work. The anonymous reviewers have provided their critical and constructive comments to improve the article. The authors are thankful to them.

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Correspondence to Nepal C. Mondal.

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Mondal, N.C., Ajaykumar, V. Appraisal of natural groundwater reserve using entropy-based model at the proximity of Deccan Trap Basalt and Gondwana Sandstone in a part of Central India. Arab J Geosci 14, 2163 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-021-08500-6

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Keywords

  • Shallow aquifer
  • Rainfall
  • Entropy-based model
  • Natural groundwater reserve
  • Deccan Trap Basalt and Gondwana Sandstone
  • Central India