Skip to main content

The genesis of rainfed agricultural soils in Indonesian lowlands with two different climate types


This study analyzes the genesis of rainfed agricultural soil derived from carbonate rocks in two climates types of the South Sulawesi Indonesian lowlands. Soil analysis included the physical and chemical characteristics of soil, clay minerals, and oxide minerals. Rock samples were analyzed using petrography analysis. There are ten soil profiles, 51 soil samples, and ten rock samples. Correlation statistics were used to determine the correlation between climate and soil characteristics. The Bantimurung District has a C-2 climate type, and Bangkala District has a D-3 climate type. The Bantimurung District as a wet area has a positive correlation between rainfall and cation exchange capacity but negative correlation with soil pH and base saturation. The dry Bangkala District shows a positive correlation between c-organic with base saturation and a negative correlation between water content and soil bulk density. Finding shows that the process of mineral transformation is strongly influenced by hydropedology activity. Kaolinite minerals are more commonly found in Bantimurung District, while nontronite-montmorillonite minerals are more common in Bangkala District. The pan-oxide plow was only found in Bantimurung District with a thickness of up to 3–8cm, indicating intensive land cultivation. Soil derived from carbonate rocks with high hydropedological activity demonstrates a faster soil formation process. To maintain soil fertility, C-organic levels of the soil need to be increased by returning harvest waste to the soil. Increasing the soil water content can be done with water harvesting and the use of perennial rivers for irrigation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  • Abd El-hamid HT, Caiyong W, Hafiz MA, Mustafa EK (2020) Effects of land use/land cover and climatic change on the ecosystem. Arab J Geosci 13(1099):1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad A, Lopulisa C, Imran AM, Baja S (2018) Soil physicochemical properties to evaluate soil degradation under different land use types in a high rainfall tropical region: A case study from South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Earth and Environmental Science. IOP Publishing, pp. 1–7.

  • Ahmad A, Alamudi ZF, Lopulisa C (2019) Karakteristik tanah sawah dari batuan lava-vulkanik di lereng Gunung Lompobattang, Sulawesi Selatan. Median 11(3):24–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aprile F, Lorandi R (2012) Evaluation of cation exchange capacity (CEC) in tropical soils using four different analytical methods. J Agric Sci 4(6):278–289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • BMKG (2016) Standardized precipitation index. Buletin Agroklimat (Agroclimate Buletin). Jakarta, Indonesia 5(5):5–10

    Google Scholar 

  • BPT (2005) Analisis kimia tanah, tanaman, air dan pupuk, Badan penelitian dan Pengembangan. Available at:

  • Buehler (2015) Preparation of petrographic thin sections. Solution For Material Preparation, Testing and Analysis. Sumnotes, Buehler 1(3):1–2

    Google Scholar 

  • Central Bureau of South Sulawesi (2015) Luas padi ladang Sulsel 2015. Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia: BPS. Available at:

  • Chuan-chuan N, Peng-dong G, Bing-qing W, Wei-peng L, Ni-hao J, Kun-zheng C (2017) Impacts of chemical fertilizer reduction and organic amendments supplementation on soil nutrient, enzyme activity and heavy metal content. J Integr Agric. CAAS. Publishing services by Elsevier B. V 16(8):1819–1831.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crescimanno G, De Santis A, Provenzano G (2007) Soil structure and bypass flow processes in a Vertisol under sprinkler and drip irrigation. Geoderma 138:110–118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Vicente I (2021) Biogeochemistry of Mediterranean wetlands: a review about the effects of water-level fluctuations on phosphorus cycling. Water 13(1510):1–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Desaunettes J (1977) Catalogue of landforms for Indonesia. FAO-Soil Research Institute, Bogor

    Google Scholar 

  • Diatta AA, Fike JH, Battaglia ML, Galbraith JM, Baig MB (2020) Effects of biochar on soil fertility and crop productivity in arid regions : a review. Arab J Geosci 13(595):2–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dobermann A, Fairhust T (2000) Rice: nutrient disorders & nutrient management. First ed. Edited by Tham Sin Chee. Potash & Phosphate Institute (PPI), Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada (PPIC) and International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)

  • Erbas BC, Solakoglu EG (2017) In the Presence of climate change, the use of fertilizers and the effect of income on agricultural emissions. Sustainability 9(1989):1–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferreira EP, Helena L, Pereira MG (2016) Genesis and classification of soils containing carbonate on the apodi. Rev Bras Cienc Solo 40:1–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hall R (2012) Late Jurassic-Cenozoic reconstructions of the Indonesian region and the Indian Ocean. Tectonophys Robert Hall 570–571:1–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hardjowigeno S, Subagyo H, Rayes ML (2005) Morfologi dan Klasifikasi Tanah Sawah. pp 1–28.

  • Hazen RM, Sverjensky DA, Azzolini D, Bish DL, Elmore SC, Hinnov L, Milliken RE (2013) Clay mineral evolution. Am Mineral 98(11–12):2007–2029.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IAEA (1997) Sampling, storage and sample preparation procedures for X ray fluorescence analysis of environmental materials. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, p 55

    Google Scholar 

  • Kerr P (1959) Optical mineralogy. 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

  • Kipkemoi I, Michaelides K, Rosolem R, Singer MB (2021) Climatic expression of rainfall on soil moisture dynamics in drylands. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. (February), pp. 1–24.

  • Kiros G, Shetty A, Nandagiri L (2016) Analysis of variability and trends in rainfall over northern Ethiopia. Arab J Geosci 9(451):1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kowalska JB, Skiba M, Maj-Szliga K, Mazurek R, Zaleski T (2021) Does calcium carbonate influence clay mineral transformation in soils developed from slope deposits in Southern Poland ? J Soils Sediments 21:257–280.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar R, Das AJ (2014) Climate change and its impact on land degradation: imperative need to focus climatology & weather Fforecasting. J Climatol Weather Forecast 2(1):1–3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li X (2003) Rain water harvesting for agriculture production in the semiarid loess region of China. Food, Agric Environ 1(3&4):282–285

    Google Scholar 

  • Maisch M, Lueder U, Kappler A, Schmidt C (2020) From plant to paddy-how rice root iron plaque can affect the paddy field iron cycling. Soil Syst 4(28):1–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maulana A, Ellis DJ, Christy AG (2010) Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the South Sulawesi basement rocks, Indonesia. Proceeding, Indonesian Petroleum Association, 34(IPA10-G-192).

  • Mehmood A, Akhtar MS, Deng Y, Dixon JB, Imran M, Rukh S (2014) Iron oxides minerals in soils derived from different parent materials iron oxides minerals in soils derived from different parent materials. Int J Plant Soil Sci 5(2):110–116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mello CR, Curi N (2012) Hydropedology. Ciênc. agrotec. Lavras 36(2):137–146

    Google Scholar 

  • Moreno MM, Moreno C, Lacasta C (2012) Evolution of soil biochemical parameters in rainfed crops : effect of organic and mineral fertilization. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2012(ID 826236), pp. 1–10. 2012:1–9.

  • Munandar TA, Sumiati (2017) The classification of cropping patterns based on regional climate classification using decision tree approach. J Comput Sci 13(9):408–415.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ngewoh ZS, Taylor RW, Shuford JW (1989) Exchangeable cations and CEC determinations of some highly weathered soils. commum. In Soil Sci Plant Anal 20(17718):1833–1855.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olsson L, Barbosa H, Bhadwal S, Cowie A, Delusca K, Flores-Renteria D, Hermans K, Jobbagy E, Kurz W, Li D, Sonwa DJ, Stringer L (2019) Land degradation. IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, pp. 345–436

  • Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T, Wani SP (2012) Formation management of cracking clay soils (Vertisols) to enhance crop productivity Indian Experience. World Soil Resources and Food Security, pp. 317–343

  • Pareek N (2017) Climate change impact on soils: adaptation and mitigation. MOJ Ecol Environ Sci 2(3):136–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pezeshki SR, Delaune RD (2012) Soil oxidation-reduction in wetlands and its impact on plant functioning. Biology 1:196–221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rabenhorst M, Parikh SJ (2000) Propensity of soils to develop redoximorphic color changes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64(September-October):1904–1910.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • RePPProT (1988) Regional physical planning programme fo transmigration. Tinjauan Hasil-Hasil Tahap I Sulawesi. Jakarta, Indonesia: Direktorat Bina Program dan Direktorat Jenderal Penyiapan Pemukiman Departemen Transmigrasi

  • Rusono N, Maghfirra D, Indarto J (2010) In: Darajati W (ed) Rencana Kebjakan Strategis Perluasan Areal Pertanian Baru dalam Rangka Mendukung Prioritas Nasioanal Ketahanan Pangan. Direktorat Pangan dan Pertanian BAPPENAS, Jakarta, Indonesia

    Google Scholar 

  • Schoeneberger PJ, Wysocki DA (2005) Hydrology of soils and deep regolith: A nexus between soil geography, ecosystems and land management. Geoderma 126:117–128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soil Survey Staff (2014) Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Twelfth edn. United States Deapertment of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, p 663

    Google Scholar 

  • Sukamto R (1982) Geologic map of the Pangkajene and western part of Watampone Quadrangles, Sulawesi. Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung

    Google Scholar 

  • Sukamto R, Supriatna S (1982) Geologic map of the Ujungpandang, Bnteng and Sinjai Quadrangles, Sulawesi. Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung

    Google Scholar 

  • Tanure TMP, Miyajima DN, Magalhaes AS, Domingues EP, Carvalho TS (2020) The impacts of climate change on agricultural production, land use and economy of the legal Amazon Region between 2030 and 2049. EconomiA Nat Assoc Postgrad Centers Econ ANPEC 21(1):73–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Reeuwijk L (2002) Technical Paper 9. Exchange organizational behavior teaching journal. sixth edit. Wageningen, Netherlands: International Soil Reference and Information Centre. Available at:

  • Van Tol JJ, Roux PL, Lorentz S (2017) Hydropedology; the science of hydropedology – linking soil morphology with. The Water Wheel, (May) pp. 20–22

  • Vepraskas MJ, Lindbo DL (2012) Redoximorphic features as related to soil hydrology and hydric soils. Hydropedology. Elsevier B.V., pp. 143–172.

  • Weil RR, Brady NC (2016) The nature and properties of soils, Fifthteenth edn. Pearson Education inc, New York, p 1071

    Google Scholar 

  • Yu F, Faybishenko B, Hunt A, Ghanbarian B (2017) A simple model of the variability of soil depths. Water 9(460):1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang ZY, Huang L, Liu F, Wang MK, Fu QL, Zhu J (2016) Applied clay science characteristics of clay minerals in soil particles of two Alfisols in China. Appl Clay Sci. Elsevier B.V. 120:51–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Thanks to the Research and Community Service (LP2M) of Universitas Hasanuddin for supporting this research.


This study was funded by the Research and Community Service (LP2M) of Universitas Hasanuddin.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Asmita Ahmad.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Stefan Grab

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ahmad, A., Farida, M. & Lopulisa, C. The genesis of rainfed agricultural soils in Indonesian lowlands with two different climate types. Arab J Geosci 14, 1662 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Soil
  • Rainfed
  • Kaolinite
  • Montmorillonite
  • Oxide
  • Indonesia