Skip to main content

Relation of soil properties to landscape position: a transect study in a part of Pinneru River basin, YSR Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh

Abstract

Three topographic positions were made and two soil profiles were taken at the center of each position to determine the interrelationships and variability of soil properties in the Penneru river basin in Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh. We collected soil samples from the genetic horizon, determining physical, chemical, and fertility parameters, and then used the soil transect data for an analysis of variance, principal component analysis, clustering, correlations, and regression. The results of the two-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in physical and chemical properties between topographic positions and horizons. The results of the multiple linear regression equation revealed that cation exchange capacity correlated significantly with organic carbon and clay. A score plot diagram showed that principal component one was mainly affected by clays and exchangeable bases, but that principal component two was influenced by bulk density, sand, and pH. The regression analysis showed that available nitrogen (R2 = 0.80**, p = 0.001) and potassium (R2 = 0.91**, p = 0.001) showed significant relationships with basic pedological properties. A topographic association of nitrogen and potassium was observed in three clusters using pH as a dependant variable. Soils in the transect were classified at the subgroup level as Typic or Lithic Torriorthents on summits, Sodic or Fluventic Haplocambids on back slopes, and Typic or Sodic Haplusterts on foot slopes. In semiarid regions, soil and landscape data are necessary for improving agricultural production, resource management, and evaluating the environment.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Abbreviations

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

BD:

Bulk density

CA:

Cluster analysis

CaCO3 :

Calcium carbonate

CEC:

Cation exchange capcity

cmol/kg :

Centimole per kilogram

CV:

Coefficient of variation

FAO:

Food and Agriculture Organization

H2SO4 :

Sulfuric acid

K:

Potassium

KMnO4 :

Potassium permanganate

M:

Molarity

MLR:

Multiple linear regressions

mg/kg:

Milligram per kilogram

N:

Nitrogen

OC:

Organic carbon

PCA:

Principal component analysis

P:

Phosphorus

r:

Correlation coefficient

R 2 :

Coefficient of determination

SD:

Standard deviation

S:

Sulfur

Ẁ:

Profile weighted mean

References

  • Abebe G, Tsunekawa A, Haregeweyn N, Taniguchi Takeshi T, Wondie M, Adgo E, Masunaga T, Tsubo M, Ebabu K, Berihun ML, Tassew A (2020) Effects of land use and topographic position on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks in different agro-ecosystems of the upper Blue Nile Basin. Sustainability 12:2425. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062425

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adhikari K, Owens PR, Ashworth AJ, Sauer TJ, Libohova Z, Richter JL, David M, Miller DM (2018) Topographic controls on soil nutrient variations in a silvopasture system. Agro syst Geosci Environ 1(1):1–15. https://doi.org/10.2134/age2018.04.0008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alexander EB (1980) Bulk densities of California soils in relation to other soil properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:689–692

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Kandari N, Jolliffe I (2005) Variable selection and interpretation in correlation principal components. Environmetrics 16:659–672

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amare T, Zegeye AD, Yitaferu B, Steenhuis TS, Hurni H, Zeleke G (2014) Combined effect of soil bund with biological soil and water conservation measures in the northwestern Ethiopian highlands. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol 14(3):192–199

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bald M (2012) Development of textural differentiation in soils: a quantitative analysis. Dissertation, The University of Adelaide, pp 1–67

  • Berryman C, Brower R, Charteres C, Davis H, Davison R, Eavis B, Yates R A (1984) Booker tropical soil manual: A handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics. London: Longman.

  • Bharat Bhushan V, Bijesh M, Sandeep S, Samanpreet K (2020) Soil Quality and its potential indicators under different land use systems in the Shivaliks of Indian Punjab. Sustainability 12:3490. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083490

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bhaskar BP, DipakSarkar UB (2013) Pedogenesis in rice growing hydric soils of Majuli river island, Assam, India. J Indian Chem Soc 90:1431–1439

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhaskar BP, Nagaraju MSS (1998) Characterization of salt affected soils occurring in Chitravati river basin of Andhra Pradesh. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 46(3):416–421

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhaskar BP, Reddy RS, Budihal SL, Challa O, Anantwar SG, Nasre RA, Koyal A, Gajbhiye KS, Velayutham M (2000) Evaluation of sediment stratification and classification of alkali soils in the Chitravathi River Basin, Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology 10:195–204

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhaskar BP, Anantwar SG, Challa O, Bharambhe PR, d Velayutham M (2001) Catenary variations in properties of shrink-swell soils in Minor – 4 of Jayakwadi Irrigation project in Parbhani district, Maharashtra. J Geol Soc India 57:429–434

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhaskar BP, Mishra JP, Baruah U, Vadivelu S, Sen TK, Butte PS, Dutta DP (2004) Soils on Jhum cultivated hill slopes of Narang-kongripara watershed in Meghalaya. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 52(4):125–133

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhaskar BP, Raja P, Gajbhiye KS, Maji AK, Singh SR, Anantwar SG, Nimkar AM (2010) Topographic appraisal for Irrigation suitability in a part of jayakwadi command area, Parbhani district, Maharashtra. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 58(4):363–370

    Google Scholar 

  • Black CA (1965) Methods of soil analysis. Part1. Am Soc Agron Inc Publ Madison. Wisconsin, USA.1572P

  • Bouyoucos GJ (1962) Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agron J 54:464–465

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bremer H (1995) Boden und Relief in den Tropen: Grundvorstellungen und Datenbank Relief, Boden. Palaolima11 Borntraeger, Berlin

  • Bremer H (2010) Geoecology in the tropics with a database on micromorphology and geomorphology. GebruderBorntraeger Verlag, Berlin, p 337

  • Brubaker SC, Jones AJ, Lewis DT, Frank K (1993) Soil properties associated with landscape positions and management. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:235–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Casas C, Minot M (2003) Correlation between species composition and soil properties in the pastures of Plana devic (Catalonia, Spain) Acta Bot. Barc. 49:291–310

    Google Scholar 

  • Cerdà A, Rodrigo-Comino J, Novara A et al (2018) Long-term impact of rainfed agricultural land abandonment on soil erosion in the Western Mediterranean basin. PPG: Earth and Environ 42(2):202–219

    Google Scholar 

  • Conforti M, Lucà F, Scarciglia F, Matteucci G, Buttafuoco G (2016) Soil carbon stock in relation to soil properties and landscape position in a forest ecosystem of southern Italy (Calabria region). Catena 144:23–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Bruin S, Stein A (1998) Soil-landscape modelling using fuzzy c-means clustering of attribute data derived from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Geoderma 83:17–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delbari M, Afrasiab P, Gharabaghi B, Amiri M, Salehian A (2019) Spatial variability analysis and mapping of soil physical and chemical attributes in a salt-affected soil. Arab J Geosci 12:68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-018-4207-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Edem ID, Udo-Inyang UC (2012) Relationship of landscape positions with soil propertieson maize (Zea Mays L.) Yield in Ultisol. Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Review 1(4):69–76

    Google Scholar 

  • Edem ID, Udoinyang UC, Edem SO (2012) Variability of Soil Physical Conditions along a Slope as Influenced by Bush Burning in Acid Sands. Int J Sci Technol Res 1(6):8–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Emamgolizadeh S, Bateni SM, Shahsavani D, Ashrafi T, Ghorbani H (2015) Estimation of soil cation exchange capacity using genetic expression programming (GEP) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). J Hydrol 529(3):1590–1600 10.101/j.jhydrol.2015.08.025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eswaran H, Mori D, Manickkam TS (1990) Soil moisture and temperature regions of Southern India. SMSS services, Washington, DC, pp 1–19

  • FAO (2006) Guidelines for soil description, 4th edition. Rome, pp 1–109

  • Giesler R, Högberg M, Högberg P (1998) Soil chemistry and plants in Fennoscandian boreal forest as exemplified by a local gradient. Ecology 79(1):119–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Habel YA (2013) Prediction soil bulk density and moisture constants using particle size distribution for selected Libyan calcareous soils. Alexandria Science Exchange Journal 34(1):63–70

    Google Scholar 

  • Hegde R, Gopali B, Niranjana KV, Bhaskar BP, Singh SK (2019) Spatial variability and mapping of selected soil propertiesin Kalligaudanahalli Microwatershed, Gundlupet Taluk, Chamamarajnagar district under hot semi arid agrosubregion of Central Karnataka Plateau, India. Springer Nature, SN applied Sci 1:518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-0486-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hole FD, Campbell JB (1985) Soil landscape analysis. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. xvi. pp1–196

  • Hook PB, Burke IC (2000) Biogeochemistry in a short grass landscape: control by topography, soil texture, and microclimate. Ecol 81:2686–2703

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horneck DA, Sullivan DM, Owen JS, Hart JM (2011) Soil test interpretation guide [EC1478]. Oregon State University Extension Service, pp.1–12. Available at http://extension.oregonstate.edu/sorec/sites/default/files/soil_test_interpretation_ec1478.pdf

  • Hoyos N, Comerford NB (2005) Land use and landscape effects on aggregate stability and total carbon of Andosols from the Colombian Andes. Geoderma 129:268–278

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Irigoin J, Paladino I, Civeira G, Costa MC (2016) Physical and chemical variables analysis for clustering of soilsin the longitudinal dunes of Sandy Pampa, Argentina. Environ Earth Sci 75:1196. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-5943-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Irvin BJ, Ventura SJ, Slater BK (1997) Fuzzy and isodata classification of landform elements from digital terrain data in Pleasant Valley, Wisconsin. Geoderma 77:137–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(97)00019-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jia FQ, Tiyip T, Wu N et al (2017) Characteristics of soil seed banks at different geomorphic positions within the longitudinal sand dunes of the Gurbantunggut Desert. China J Arid Land 9(3):355–367

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jobbagy EG, Jackson RB (2001) The distribution of soil nutrients with depth: global patterns and the imprint of plants. Biogeochemistry 53:51–77

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones LHP, Cowling DW, Leckyer DR (1972) Plant-available and extractable sulfur in soils of England and Wales. Soil Sci 114:104–114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Juhos K, Szabo S, Ladanyi M (2015) Influence of soil properties on crop yield: a multivariate statistical approach. Int Agrophys 29:433–440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karaca S, Gülser F, Selçuk R (2018) Relationships between soil properties, topography and land use in the Van Lake Basin, Turkey. Eur J Soil Sci 7(2):115–120

    Google Scholar 

  • Karchegani PM, Ayoubi S, Lu SG et al (2011) Use of magnetic measures to assess soil redistribution following deforestation in hilly region. J Appl Geophys 75(2):227–236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keshavarzi A, Tuffour H, Bagherzadeh A et al (2018) Spatial and fractal characterization of soil properties across soil depth in an agricultural field, Northeast Iran. Eur J Soil Sci 7(2):93–102

    Google Scholar 

  • Khaledian Y, Brevik EC, Pereira P, Cerdà A, Fattah MA, Tazikeh H (2017) Modeling soil cation exchange capacity in multiple countries. Catena 158:194–200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khan S, Mulvaney R, Ellsworth T (2014) The potassium paradox: Implications for soil fertility, crop production and human health. Renew Agr Food Syst 29(1):3–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khormali F, Ajami M, Ayoubi S, Srinivasarao C, Wani SP (2009) Role of deforestation and hillslope position on soil quality attributes of loess-derivedsoils in Golestan province, Iran. Agric Ecosyst Environ 134(3–4):178–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khresat SA, Qudah EA (2006) Formtion and properties of aridic soils of Azraq basin in Northern Jordan. J Arid Environ 64(1):116–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kianpoor KY, Rezaie AR, Amerikhah H, Sami M (2012) Comparison of multiple linear regressions and artificial intelligence based modeling techniques for prediction the soil cation exchange capacity of Aridisols and Entisols in a semiarid region. Australian J Agric Eng 3(2):39–46

    Google Scholar 

  • Komisarek J (2000) Formation of proper fishing soil and black soil as well as chemistry of groundwater in the catheter of the bottom moraine list, Publishers of the Agricultural University. Augusta Cieszkowskiego, Poznań

  • Krishna Bhawan SVB, Ramana Rao KL (1985) Geomorphic features of a part of Cuddapah and Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh using Remote Sensing Techniques. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 13(2):19–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakshminarayana G, Bhattacharjee S, Rama naidu KV (2001) Sedimentation and stratigraphic framework in the Cuddapah basin. In: National Seminar Commemorating Dr M. S. Krishnan’s Birth centenary(ProceedingsVolume). Geol Surv India Spec Publ 55:31–58

    Google Scholar 

  • Li SS, Wang Q, Li LH (2016) Interdecadal variations of pan-evaporation at the southern and northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains, China. J Arid Land 8(6):832–845

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacDonald KB (1998) Development of pedotransfer functions of southern Ontario soils. Report from greenhouse and processing crops research center, No. 01686-8-0436. Harrow Ontario, pp 1–23

  • Malinowska E, Szumacher I (2013) Application of the catena concept in studies of landscape system dynamics. Miscellanea Geographica-Regional Studies Dev 17(4):42–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manning G, Fuller LG, Eilers RG, Florinsky I (2001) Topographic influence on the variability of soil proper-ties within an undulating Manitoba landscape. Can J Soil Sci 81:439–447

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moazallahi M, Farpoor MH (2011) Soil genesis and clay mineralogy along the xeric–aridic climo toposequence, south central Iran. J Agric Sci Technol 14(3):683–696

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohanty S, Paikaray NK, Rajan AR (2006) Availability and uptake of phosphorus from organic manures in groundnut(Arachis hypogeae L)—corn(Zea mays L) sequence using radio tracer technique. Geoderma 133:225–230

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moraetis D, Lydakis-Simantiris N, Pentari D, Manoutsoglou E, Apostolaki C, Perdikatsis V (2016) Chemical and physical characteristics in uncultivated soils with different lithology in semiarid Mediterranean Clima. Appl Environ Soil Sci Article ID 3590548 2016:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3590548

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nagaraja Rao BK, Rajurkar ST, Ramalingaswamy G, Ravindra Babu B (1987) Stratigraphy, structure and evolution of the Cuddapah basin. Purana Basins of Peninsular India (Middle to Late Proterozoic). In Radhakrishna BP (ed.) Geological society of India (Memoir) Bangalore 6:33–86

  • Obalum SE, Nwite JC, Oppong J, Igwe CA, Wakatsuki T (2011) Variations in selected soil physical properties with landforms and slope within an inland valley ecosystem in Ashanti Region of Ghana. Soil and Water Res 6(2):73–82

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olsen SR, Sommers LE (1982) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties of phosphorus. ASA Monograph 9:403–430

    Google Scholar 

  • Ovalles FA, Collins ME (1986) Soil-landscape relationships and soil variability in north central Florida. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50(2):401–408

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Park E, Smucker AM (2005) Saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity within maeroaggregates modified by tillage. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69:38–45

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prakash D, Benbi DK, Saroa GS (2017) Clay, organic carbon, available P and calcium carbonate effects on phosphorus release and sorption–desorption kinetics in alluvial soils. Commun Soil Sci Plan 48(1):92–106. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2016.1253724

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Qwlliaie H, Ghiri MN, Shakeri S (2018) Soil –landscape relationship as indicated by pedogenesis data on selected soils from Southwestern Iran. Eur J Soil Sci 7(1):167–180

    Google Scholar 

  • Raad AT, Protz R (1970) A new method for identification of sediment stratification in soils of Blue springs basin, Ontario. Geoderma 6:23–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ramos MC, Nacci S, Pla I (2000) Soil sealing and its influence on erosion rates for some soils in theMediterranean area. Soil Sci 165(5):398–403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reddy SS, Reddy VC, Ananda MC, Sivaraj B (2005) Direct effect of fertilizers and residual effect of organic manures on yield and uptake of maize (Zea mays L) in groundnut-maize cropping system. Crop Res 29:390–395

    Google Scholar 

  • Rehm RPM, Grashey-Jansen S (2016) Soil sequence-studies on the tropical Buganda-Catena (Masaka District, Uganda). Afr J Soil Sci 4(1):295–304

    Google Scholar 

  • Reyes J, Wendroth C, Matocha O, Zhu J (2019) Delineating site-specific management zones and evaluating soil water temporal dynamics in a farmer’s field in Kentucky. Vadose Zone J 18:180143–180119. https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2018.07.0143

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rowley MC, Grand S, Adatte T, Verrecchia EP (2020) A cascading influence of calcium carbonate on the biogeochemistry and pedogenic trajectories of subalpine soils, Switzerland. Geoderma 361:114065. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2019.114065

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Satyavathi PLA, Tiwary P, Bhaskar BP, Ray SK, Prasad J, Bobde SV (2017) Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water retention characteristics in major cotton growing shrink-swell soils of Yavatmal District, Maharashtra. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 65:379–386

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scarciglia F, Conforti M, Buttafuoco G, Robustelli G, Aucelli PC, Morrone F, Casuscelli F, Palumbo G (2012) Integrated study of a soil catena in the Turbolo watershed (Calabria, southern Italy): soil processes, hydrology and geomorphic dynamics. Rend. Online Soc Geol It 21:1215–1217

    Google Scholar 

  • Schjønning P, Munkholm LJ, Elmholt S, Olesen JE (2007) Organic matter and soil tilth in arable farming: Management makes a difference within 5–6 years. Agric Ecosyst Environ 122(2):157–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schlesinger WH, Pilmanis AM (1998) Plant-soil interactions in deserts. Biogeochemistry 42:169–187

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schoeneberger PJ, Wysocki DA, Benham EC (2012) Soil survey staff field book for describing and sampling soils. Version 3.0. Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE. pp 1–300

  • Shiri J, Keshavarzi A, Kisi O, Iturraran-Viveros U, Bagherzadeh A, Mousavi R, Karimi S (2017) Modeling soil cation exchange capacity using soil parameters: Assessing the heuristic models. Comput Electron Agric 135:242–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shukla MK, Lal R, Ebinger M (2006) Determining soil quality indicators by factor analysis. Soil Tillage Res 87(2):194–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soil Science Division Staff (2017) Soil survey manual. In Ditzler C, Scheffe K, Monger HC (eds) USDA Handbook 18. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 1–639

  • Soil Survey Staff (2010) Keys to soil taxonomy, 11th ed. US Gov Print Office, Washington DC, pp 1–346

  • Soil Survey Staff (2014) Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th Edition, USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC, pp1–372

  • Sommer M, Schlichting E (1997) Archetypes of catenas in respect to matter—a concept for structuring and grouping catenas. Geoderma 76:1–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sreedevi PD (2002) Climatic water balance and droughts of Pageru River Basin, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh. Environ Geol 42:681–689

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stavi I, Ungar ED, Lavee H, Sarah P (2008) Grazing-induced spatial variability of soil bulk density and content of moisture, organicarbon and calcium carbonate in a semi-arid rangeland. Catena 75(3):288–296

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Steers CA, Hajek BF (1979) Determination of map unit composition by a random selection of transects. Soil SciSoc AmJ 43:156–160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Subbaiah BV, Asija GL (1956) A rapid method for determination of nitrogen in soils. Curr Sci 25:259–260

    Google Scholar 

  • Sulieman M, Saeed I, Hassaballa A, Rodrigo-Comino J (2018) Modeling cation exchange capacity in multi geochronological-derived alluvium soils: An approach based on soil depth intervals. Catena 167:327–339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • UNEP World Atlas of Desertification (United nations Environment Programme) Middleton N, Thomas DSG (1992). Edward Arnold, London, pp 182

  • van Reeuwijk LP (2002) Procedures for soil analysis, 6th edition. Technical Paper 9, International Soil Reference and Information Centre The Netherlands, pp 1–119

  • Vasu D, Singh SK, A, Tiwary P, Chandran P, Ray SK, Duraisami VP (2016) Pedogenic processes and soil–landform relationships for identification of yield-limiting soil properties. Soil Res 55(3):273–284. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR1611

  • Velayutham M, Mandal DK, Mandal C, Sehgal J (1999) Agro-ecological subregions of India for planning and development. Publ. No. 35 NBSS and LUP, Nagpur, Maharashtra, p 372

  • Von Wandruszka R (2006) Phosphorus retention in calcareous soils and the effect of organic matter on its mobility. Geochem Trans 7(1):6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang C, Zhao CY, Lin Xu Z, Wang Y, Peng HH (2013) Effect of vegetation on soil water retention and storage in a semi-arid alpine forest catchment. J Arid Land 5(2):207–219

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang JQ, Liu LC, Qiu XQ et al (2016) Contents of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in water-stable aggregates in abandone agricultural lands in an arid ecosystem of Northwest China. J Arid Land 8(3):350–363

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yimer F (2017) Effect of landscape positions on soil properties in an agricultural land A transect study in the main rift valley area of Ethiopia. J Sci Dev 5(1):21–31

    Google Scholar 

  • Yimer F, Stig Ledin S, Abdelkadi A (2008) Concentrations of exchangeable bases and cation exchange capacity in soils of cropland, grazing and forest in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. For Ecol Manag 256:1298–1302

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeraatpishe M, Khormali F (2012) Carbon stock and mineral factors controlling soil organic carbon in a climatic gradient, Golestan province. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 12(4):637–654

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur-522, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA, for providing financial support in the form of a scholarship and for conducting field research as a part of Ph.D program.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dwaram Venkata Sujatha.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Stefan Grab

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sujatha, D.V., Naidu, M.V.S., Bhaskar, B.P. et al. Relation of soil properties to landscape position: a transect study in a part of Pinneru River basin, YSR Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh. Arab J Geosci 14, 1648 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-021-08107-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-021-08107-x

Keywords

  • ANOVA analysis
  • Clustering
  • Gandikota
  • Penneru
  • Principal component analysis
  • Soil properties
  • Shrink-swell soils
  • Soil–toposequence